Uworld 1

poxidicu's version from 2016-04-25 19:19


Question Answer
Two groups(populations)Two-Sample t test
Hiv+ pt with normal cd 4(>400), cough, fever, chills, lower lobeS. Pneumonia
Hiv+ pt with normal cd 4(>400), cough, fever, chills, weightloss, night-sweat, upper lobeM.Tuberculosis
Small circular DNA akaMitochondrial DNA- codes for protein, tRNA and rRNA- Found in mitochondria
Septic Shock(fever, hypotension, tachycardia, high anion gap) -> Hypoxia -> Lactic acidosisDecreased oxidation phosphorylation
Aspiration Pneumonia causedSwallowing muscle dysfunction(Stroke,Dementia,Drug intoxication, Degenerative disorders)
Opacities in Superior region of R-lower lobes & Posterior regions of R-upperlobeAspiration Pneumonia
Straddle Injury/BicycleAnterior Urethera
Pelvic TraumaPosterior Urethera
Low Hematocrit & Reticulocytes, Normal Platelets and leukocytesAplastic CRISIS -> ParvovirusB19 -> Nonenveloped single-stranded DNA virus
Low Hematocrit, Reticulocytes, Platelets and leukocytesAplastic ANEMIA -> EBV -> Enveloped double-(stranded DNA virus
EBV(fever, sore throat, anterior and posterior lymphadenopathy)Virus affects CD21 B lymphocytes but response is -> Atypical cells"Activated Cd-8 cytotoxic lymphocytes"
Pericardial fluid accumulation (cardiac tamponade) causesDrop in systolic blood pressure & pulse amplitude during inspiration (Pulsus paradoxus)
Muffled heart sounds, increased JVP, hypotension, pericardial fluidBeck triad -> Cardiac Tamponade
Tennis Elbow(Lateral epicondylitis) - Pain over lateral epicondyle of the humerusWrist extension affected by extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle
Golfers elbow(Medial epicondylitis)Wrist flexion affected
Elderly, strain to urinate, back pain, osteoblasic lesions in the lumbar spine(primary bone spread)Prostate cancer with metastases to bone (via Prostatic venousplexus)
Gallstone findingsIncreased Cholesterol, Decreased Bile salt & Phosphatidylcholine
Beta agonist(Tiodrine, Terbutaline)Decrease Uterine contractions
Alpha agonistPupillary Dilation
CHF Drug of choice with long term control of hypertension, post MI-cardiac remodelingACE Inhibitors(Lisinopril)
CHF Drug of choice for symptomsDiuretics(Hydrochlorothiazide)
HbFYgamma globin
Adenosine vs NOVasodilation small arteries VS large arteries
Fatigue, pruritius, hepatomegaly, elevated alkaline phosphatase, liver biopsy dilated bile canalculi with green brown plugs and yellowish green accumulations of pigment within parenchymaCholestatic Liver Disease -> Fat soluble deficiency malabsorption
Burnt Pt treatmentPseudomonas(Cephalosporins - Cefepime or Ceftazidime)
HIV dementiaMicroglial nodules(inflammatory activation of microglial cells)
Essential tremor -> Familial history & improves with alcoholBeta-blockers
More than 2 weeks/ More than 5 depression symptoms(low mood, low energy, weigh, concentration)Major depressive Disorder
Horner SyndromePtosis, Miosis, Anhydrosis
Bells palsyDecreased tearing, Hyperacusis, Taste in the anterior 1/3 of the tongue decreased, unilateral facial paralysis
Kussmaul sign(Increase JVP)Constrictive Pericarditis((Viral, radiation therapy)
Loud P2Pulmonary Hypertension
Leukotriene b4Neutrophil migration
Despite having Essential fructosuria pt metabolize fructose due toHexokinase -> Fructose-6-phosphate -> Glycolysis
AgingEpidermal Atrophy, Decreased Collagen fibril production, Increased collagen cross linking and elastin degradation
Palpitations,Tachycardia, Irregularly irregular rhtym, missing P wavesA Fib (Excessive alcohol consumption)
High voltage QRS precordial leadsVentricular hypertrophy
Conjugate vaccineNon-Toxic diptheria protein, t-cell recruitment, development of memory B cells, longer & lasting antibody levels. Infants/65
Polysaccharide vaccineProtects against wide range of serotypes, antibody declines over time, ages 2-64
Atropine contraindicated in pts withGlaucoma
DNA Mismatch repairHPNCC
DNA excision repairXeroderma Pigmentosum
Retinal Hemorrhage(Flame), blurry vision with patchy spots, copper & silver wiring, NO recent headaches, double vision, vertigo, painlessHypertension
Cherry Red spot with thin arteriesCentral retinal artery occlusion
S.BovisTest for GI cancer
IP3(inositol triphosphate) produces effect byIncrease Calcium -> Activates protein Kinase C
Diabetic AcidosisRegular Insulin
Post Meal insulinLispro, Aspart, Glulisine


Question Answer
Gonadal artery arises both fromAbdominal Aorta
Gonadal veins arise fromLeft-Left renal vein/ Right-Inferior vena cava
Pyelonephritis(sexually active,frequency,urgency,costovertebral angle tenderness,fever,chills) urine analysis specific diagnosis**WBC casts**, wbc, bacteria
Ovaries composed of connective tissue with no follicles(streak ovaries)Dx -Turner Syndrome risk for bicuspid aortic valve or coarctation of aorta
Giardiasis(watery diarrhea, malabsorption, villi atrophy, ova & parasites)IgA Deficiency
SecretinIncreases Bicarbonate release to decrease stomach acidity (decrease Cl-)
b- Hemolytic bacteriaS.aureus, S.pyogenes, S.agalactiae, Listeria Monocytogenes
Tumbling motility, Intracellular bacteria(Cell mediated), motile, g+, b-hemolysis, grows well in cold temperatureListeria Monocytogenes
Budding yeast "Germ tubes" at 37cCandida Albicans(oral cavity)
Fever, weight loss, neck/shoulder/pelvic stiffnessPolymyalgia Rheumatica associated with temporal arteritis(headache/monooccular vision)
Vomiting(mallory weiss) leads toMetabolic Alkalosis
PAH lowest at theBowmens Capsule
B-thalassemia(HbA2- High, Tails, target cell, no sx improve with iron tablets) is due todefective transcription, processing, translation of b-globin mRNA
Neurologic sx & non-specific abdominal painAcute Intermittent Porphyria(porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency OR low calorie diet,drugs,alcohol)
Acute Intermittent Porphyria txHeme or Glucose (inhibits Aminolevulinate synthase)
Marker for macrophage(TB granuloma)CD14
Odds ratioad/bc (ex - Beta blocker arrhythmia vs non arrhythmia = Non beta blocker arrhythmia vs non arrythmia)
Hemoptysis, prior tb cavities, round mass, NO fever, nightsweats, weight lossColonizing Aspergilloma
Rubella(Post-aurical/occipitallymphadenopathy) familyTogavirus
Rubella & Rubeola rash starts in the face and to the trunkTogavirus VS paRamyxovirus
Fragile X syndrome(CGG tinucleotide)Gene methylation defect
lack of social connection, repetitive play, want everything sameAutism Disorder
Female infant High androgen & testosterone, ambiguous external genitalia, *maternal virilization*Aromatase Deficiency(lack of estrogen)
High androgen & testosterone, ambiguous genitalia, no maternal virilization21-hydroxylase deficiency
Half life of drug(0.7X Vd) / CL = half life. 0hr - 0% / 1hr - 50% / 2hr - 75% / 3hr - 87.5% / 4hr - 93.75% / 5hr - 96.875%
PCOS pts high risk forEndometrial adenocarcinoma(LH high and FSH low)
Tea colored urine, bilateral periorbital edema, hypertension, red blood cell casts, elevated creatinine and C3Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
Imperforate anus associated withUrinary tract defects, renal agensis, hypospadia, epispadias, bladder extrophy
2 yr old 3-5 days of HIGH fever with seizures & later presents with maculopapular rashHHV 6 Roseola
pt boy sleeping all the time, confusion, coma, increased ammonia and orotic acidOrnithine Transcarbamoylase deficiency & excess carbmoyl phosphate -> Orotic
Calcium binds to calmodulin for contraction inSmooth Muscle
Calcium binds to troponin for contraction inSkeletal Muscle
Ethanol InhibitsGluconeogenesis by reducing NAD to NADH required in TCA cycle to make pyruvate for Gluconeogenesis
Mitral Valve & Chordinae are made ofConnective tissue
Saturday night palsy or crutch palsyRadial nerve (Wrist drop or wrist extension messedup & absent tricep reflex)
Zenker (false) diverticulumCricopharyngeal motor dysfunction
Scarring collageType 1(Bone, Tendon)
Neuromuscular Obstructive Sleep Apnea TXElectrical stimulation of the Hypoglossal Nerve moves the tongue forward increasing the diameter of the airway
Mysthenia gravis test should showGradual Muscle fatigue with more use (Neuromuscular junction problem)
Lambort Eaton test should showGradual Muscle strengthening with more use (Neuromuscular junction problem)
SOB, No prior medical condition, no smoking, liver enzymes elevatedAlpha-1 anti trypsin deficiency
Carbidopa/Levidopa On&Off phenomenonDrug response is unpredictable
Pleural Thickening and calcification in mid lung with pleural effusions/ posterolateral midlungAsbestosis
Egg shell calcification in lungSilicosis


Question Answer
Maintenance dose CPss x Cl (eg - 6hrs, Clearance 0.5, CPss 4)Ans - 4X0.5 -> 2X60minsX6Hrs -> 720mg


Question Answer
Gp160 splits and makes Gp120 & Gp41Function of these two proteins are virion attachment to the target cells
Middle aged man, dry tap, pancytopenia, no lymphadenopathy, splenomegalyHairy Cell leukemia(lymphocytes with cytoplasmic projections)
Neisseria Gonorrhea & ChlamydiaMacrolide & Third generation cephalosporins
Soil and hot temperatureBaccilus & Clostridium
Cd16 & Cd56 kills cells with ↓MHC class I activityNatural Killer cells (Granzymes + perforins -> Apoptosis)
Noise Induced Hearing lossSterociliated hair cells of Organ of Corti
Loud noise are dampened byStapedius and Tensor Tympani Membrane
Budding yeast, PseudohypaeCandida Albicans
Shigellosis MOAMicrofold(M) cells in the Peyers patch through endocytosis
Child, lack of thriving, bulky and greasy stool, clear foamy cytoplasmAbetalipoproteniemia(lipid accumulation)


Question Answer
TH1 is inhibitedCytokines IL-10 & IL-4
TH2 is inhibitedIFN-y
ChronsIL-12& IFN-y -> TH-1 mediated response -> L-2, IL-12, IFN-y, TNF-a
Ulcerative colitisIL-4 -> TH-2 mediated response -> IL-1,4,5,6,9,10,13,TGF-b
Hereditary Fructose intolerance(Serious)Aldose b
Galactosemia cataracts but asymptomatic(Not serious)Galactokinase Deficiency
Galactosemia, liver impairment, metabolic acidosis, aminoaciduria(Serious)Galactose I-phosphate uridyl transferase deficiency
Build up of methylmalonic acid and propionic acid(urine). hypoglycemia ->Ketones, Hyperammonemia, lethargy, vomiting during neonatal periodMethylmalonyl-CoA mutase deficiency
Build up of propionic acid & lack of elevated methylmalonic acid in urine. hypoglycemia ->Ketones, Hyperammonemia, lethargy, vomiting during neonatal periodPropionic Acidemia


Question Answer
Ca efflux in myocytes during relaxation occur viaNa+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism
Myocytes during contraction occur viaVoltage dependent calcium channels with the help of ryanodine receptors
Increased RAS, Na & Fluid retention, Increased sympathetic activity and renin, increased arteriolar resistance, angiotensin II, ICHF
low ph,low pCO2, low bicarb, High H2PO4DKA
Ach Receptors(Neuromuscular)Nicotinic (Sympathetic,NA/Ca influx & K efflux ligand gated, CNS), Muscarnic(Parasympathetic, 2nd messanger)
Non-Selective B-blockersMask the symptoms of hypoglycemia(Diabetics)
Loss of paternal chromosome XTurner Syndrome(Femoral ↓bp, neck mass-cystic hygorma, bilateral non-ptting edema of extermities)
Age related changedDecreased renal function(↑ or - Creatine)
Chronic Hepatitis B HistopathologicFinely granular, homogeneous, pale pink- dull eosinophils inclusions(ground glass hepatits)
Hepatitis C HistopatholgicLymphoid aggregates within the portal tracts and focal areas of macrovesicular steatosis
Opiod tolerance that you never overcomeMiosis & Constipation
Carotid afferent limb (carotid sinus)Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Tight shirted collar)
Carotid efferent limb (Aortic arch)Vagus Nerve (Parasympathetic)


Question Answer
Repetitive Anterior knee trauma(Gardner, plumbers, mechanics)Prepatellar & Infrapatellar
Repetitive Quadriceps(Running)Suprapatellar
Osteoarthritis & Inflammatory Joint disease bursa complicationSemimembranous(Popliteal baker cyst)
Methylated(Turning off)Imprinting(Angelman/Prader-willi), Trineucleotide repeats(Fragile X)
Inguinal Crease clinical significanceFemoral nerve block -> Anesthetize the femoral nerve(skin & muscles of the anterior thigh, femur, knee), saphenous nerve(sensation in the medial leg below to knee)


Question Answer
Enterobius VermicularisPerianal egg deposition
Stongyloides StercoralisRhabiditiform Larvae in the stool
Shistosoma mansoniParasite eggs in the stool
Giardia Lamblia, Entamoeba HistolyticaTrophozites and cysts in the stool
Taenia Solium, DiphyllobothriumProglotidds in the stool


Question Answer
Muscle weakness and Paresthesia symptoms forAdrenal Hyperplasia or Unilateral Adrenal adenoma
History of irregular menses at risk forInaccurate pregnancy dating
Genetic Shifts through ReassortmentSegmented genomes -> Orthomyxovirus, rotavirus, Influenza A, reovirus, bunyavirus, arenavirus
High ammonia levels in body leads to the depletion ofa-ketoglutarate -> Inhibition of TCA cycle
Trazadone SSRI sxOrthostatic hypotension & Priapism due to alpha-adrenergic blockade
Superior Laryngeal Nerve VS Recurrent laryngeal NerveSuper Thyroid artery ligation VA Inferior Thyroid artery ligation
Recurrent Nerve innervates all muscles exceptCricothyroid
Unilateral Recurrent Nerve injuryHoarseness
Bilateral Recurrent Nerve injuryInspiratory stridor & Respiratory distress -> vocal cord paralysis


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Disease prevalence in the presentCross sectional
Risk factor/ Diseased Vs No DiseasedCase Control
Lead time biasNew screening test for lung or pancreatic cancer that increases prognosis
Compare for outcome of interest / Treatment group vs control groupClinical Trial


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Pt being treated with ampicillin and 1 week later presents with fever/skin rash, low urine output(azotemia), elevated creatinine, eosinophilia & eosinophiluria, rbc castsDrug Induced Acute interstitial nephritis affecting interstitium (NSAIDS, rifampin, diuritics, sulfonamides)
Family history significant for colon, endometrial/ovarian cancer and PT has adenocarcinoma with no polypsMSH2 mutation(lynch syndrome HNPCC)
Reading, speaking normal but writing is abnormal in a kidLearning disorder
Pain and morphine relation with MU receptorACTH and cortisol
Proximal muscle weakness with difficulty walking upstairs, difficulty combing hair and lifting objects above head, with endomysial mononuclear infiltratePolymyositis


Question Answer
Clue cell(Bacterial Vaginosis- Gardnella)
Correlation Coefficient
Normal Heart