As little more that animal instincts such as the pursuit of pleasure of food
Why did Mill reject the hedonic calculus
Measure the quantity of pleasure; believed we should focus on the quality of the pleasure
What type of pleasures did Mill believe in?
higher pleasures (satisfy the mind); lower pleasures (satisfy the body)
What did Mill diasgree with bentham about a pushpin...
"pushpin is equal to poetry"- bentham
What did Mill focus on?
Greatest amount of good (not pleasure) for the greatest amount of people in a society
What is sacrificed in Mill's system
Individual pleasure- sacrificed for communitity's greater good- e.g. no one likes bus fares but it is necessary for a good transport system
What is Rule UT
Society has to have general rules arrived at by UT reasoning in order to operate. They had to be generally accepted for society to function. E.g. Lying: Immidiate pleasure may be gained through a lie- in the long term it is detrimental to society as it creates a lack of trust and aprehension between people- creates more unhappiness that happiness
What defense of Bentham's UT does Mill's theory offer
Defends gang rape as it's lower physical pleasures do not outweigh the higher physcological pain of the victim
Mill on Higher pleasures
• “Better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied”- Mill (higher pleasures)
Mill on Greatest Happiness principle
• “The Greatest Happiness Principle holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as then tend to produce unhappiness. By happiness is intended pleasure, and the absence of pain; by unhappiness, pain and the privation of pleasure”- John Stuart Mill
The views of minorities- when deciding what was in best interests of a group, everyone's individual preferences must be taken into account- everyone's views are equal
What did Singer offer instead on calculating pleasure vs pain
Offered the idea of achieving what was in the best interest of the group- gets round the notion of using UT to impose one's idea of happiness upon someone else who may not view happiness in the same wat
What did singer believe about pain?
There was a far greater agreement about what causes pleasure than pain
What is a problem with pref UT
People do not always want pleasure due to differing preferences- if pleasure was not always desired then dies that mean his pref UT is invalid- what if they don't want to maximise pleasure?
Peter Singer quote about what it means to be a UT
To be a utilitarian means that you judge actions as right or wrong in accordance with whether they have good consequences. So you try to do what will have the best consequences for all of those affected.
Singer quote on value of human life
The notion that human life is sacred just because it is human life is medieval
What does Singer's UT replace pleasure with?
Which part of the hedonic calculus did singer empahsise?
the 7th part- extent: how many people will it affect
Singer defining a wrong action
“an action contrary to the preference of any being is, unless outweighed by the preferences of other beings, wrong”
What are the best possible consequences for Singer??
“best possible consequences” means what is in the best interest of those individuals concerned
Bentham- idea that human pains and pleasures are memorable-actions can be judged as right or wrong on the basis of a kind of moral arithmatic
What are the 7 factors of the hedonic calculus?
Intensity Duration Certainty Fecundity (What is the probability that the pleasure will lead to other pleasures?) Propinquity (How far off in the future is the pleasure or pain?) Extent Purity (What is the probability that the pain will lead to other pains?)
Mnemonic for hedonic calculus
"It definitely Causes Pleasure For People Everywhere
Criticism of Hedonic calculus
How can you account for certainty when nothing is certain- if you carry out an action that would extend your life by ten years you cannot be certain of it as you may die in a car crash in a week
What does the hedonic calculus do/ who is it linked with
Judges each situation differently- linked with Benthams act Ut
Act UT is referred to as strong UT as it offers a straighforward approach to arriving at moral decisions with one rule- principl of UT- referred to as strong as bentham insisted that the rule be adgered to w/o exceptions
What is Weak UT
Rule Ut- flexible appriach, accepts that there will be times where you will have to break the pricniple if the consequences are harmful; e.g. you should always tell the truth UNLESS a murderer asks where X is...