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USSR Work & Housing Benefits

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noorgal's version from 2018-06-15 07:00

Work under Lenin and Stalin

Question Answer
What did Marx think about work and capitalismCritisised capitalism as it didn't offer rewards for worker = stay poor. While capitalist 'parasites' profit off them
What were Marx's prediction of work/wealth relationship after revolution?Two principles: Socialist = wealth according to ability. Higher principle (communism): everyone in society wealthy regardless of scale of contribution
When was the Declaration of the Rights of Toiling and Exploited People?1918
What did the Declaration of the Rights of Toiling and Exploited People entail?Abolished private ownership of land and Universal labour duty
What was work like 1917-18?1917 revolution + WWII = unstable jobs, chaos and unemployment
How many people were unemployed in October 1918?>100,000
What % of metal and chemical workers were unemployed in March 1918?75%
When was war communism introduced?June 1918
When were all able bodied men aged 16-50 liable for compulsory work?September 1918
What organisation organised rationing under WC, where workers got 4x more than ex nobility?Prodrasped
How many products / people were legible at the height of rations?36 products, 22 million people
What other benefits did workers get under war communism?work card, free public transport and use of communal facilities
What benefits did party members get under war communism?access to special goods for scarce goods
What % of factory workers fled to the country side from 1917-21 for work opportunities?25%
What % did the population of petrograd decrease from 1917-21?50%
Why was war communism unsuccessful?unsustainable, couldn't guarantee full employment and social security
Why wasn't compulsory labour successful?unsustainable
When did factories close down because of fuel shortages?July 1920
When was NEP?March 1921
What % of unemployment increased due to NEP from 1921-24?1921: 5.5% 1924: 18%
Why did unemployment increase under NEP?Sacking to increase productivity, red army demobilised, urban workers that returned to city unable to get jobs
When were the Red Army demobilised?1921-22
How many admins were sacked after war communism ended?225,000
In 1922, what % of unemployed were women?62.2%
When was the Labour Law that gave unions the right to negotiate with employers?1922
What were social insurance benefits under Lenin?Disability, materinity, unemployment and medical benefits for 9 millions workers
What were the education benefits for workers under Lenin? Government invested in education for workers and their families
What was employment like under Stalin?Full employment due to mass industrialisation
How was work authoritarian under Stalin?lateness criminalised, unions lost negotiation right and strikes were banned. 'Continuous work week'
What were the work benefits under Stalin's 5YrPs?1930s: food rations, 30KM railway built (400% increase in passenger traffic), mass vaccinations and canteens
When was electricity made available to workers?1933
How were benefits made available in Stalin's regime?through factories and collective farms = encouraged linked between work and social welfare
How were work benefits unsuccessful under Stalin?'Party first' - party members given better treatment for work benefits; still divide between peasant and workers
What were the employment figures from 1945-50?8 million -> 12.2 million (Mainly from returning from war)
What % did infant mortality decrease from 1940-50?50%
What was the increase of doctors from 1947-52?2/3 up
When were vaccines universally available?1947
Examples of food shortages affecting benefits in 1947?communal canteens cost 1/2 month's wages
Why did healthcare expansion not lead to improvement under Stalin?poverty and shortages of consumer goods, rotten food and poor sanitation
When was Stalin's hygiene campaign?1947
How many sick days did the average worker take in 194610-13
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Housing and Khrushchev and Brezhnev's better society

Question Answer
When was redistribution of property?1918-28 (Outlawed under NEP, returned after Lenin's death)
Why were homes destroyed at the end of the civil war?provide timber for fuel
What was redistribution of property?property confiscated from upperclasses and handed to workers - former owners killed / forced to share / leave
When did Lenin issue decree to control redistribution of property?August 1918
What % of homes under NEP were denationalised?60-80%
When were large town homes 'socialised' - working class live with owners 1923-24
In what period was redistribution of property outlawed and church property nationalised??NEP
When was rent reintroduced?1921
When did house rebuilding start after the civil war?1923
When were the constructivist buildings built ?1927-29
Example of a constructivist building? Zuyev Worker's Club- facilitated collective living - revolutionary and well designed.
Why were the constructivist buildings not successful? Only a few built = little impact
What was the population increase in cities from 1929-40?Population trebled due to immigration from rural areas
What was the kommunalka?Communal appartments, average family had 5.5sqm
Why was the Kommunalka bad in Livbertsy?650,000 did not have a single bathhouse
What were 'corner dwellers' -1930s; people who lived in corridors emerge for 1/2 month wage permanently
What were Stalin's factory towns?new towns built around factories to support rapid industrialisation - eg: Magnitogorsk
What were the conditions like in factory towns?factories more important than housing - worse than kommunalka; lacked water and bathrooms.
What % of individuals in factory towns lived in mudhuts?20%
Why was housing ineffective in factory towns?Model homes = expensive to build = little made; only occupied by architects. First year: housing plans abandoned
What proportion of urban housing was damaged in WWII?1/3
What was living conditions like for worker 1941-53?average living space: 3sqm; 15,000 beds for 26,000 workers, 1 wash basin for 70 people
1948: Moscow, what % of budget was spent on housebuilding projects; which led to no homes being built?40%
What type of homes were built in 1950s?poor quality
How many farming villages, homes renovated / constructed and communal buildings built 1945-50?4500 farming villages, 919,000 homes, 31,000 communal buildings
Why did Khrushchev recall a 'sausage'Critised soviet consumer industry, reform shown in VLS + social policy
What increase was there in the housing budget from 1950-5921.4 billion -> 44 billion roubles
What increase was there in pensioners from the quadrupling of the pension budget under Khrushchev?1950: 1 million, 1965: 4.4 million
What were the benefits from Khrushchev's 1961 laws?free lunches for workers / schools , free public transport and full pension+ healthcare rights
When did double urban housing due to Khrushchev's cheap material 'Khrushchyoka' homes1960-65; Khrushchyoka' used in 70s/80s
How was Khrushchev's housing style different to Stalin?Abandoned Stalin's grand architecture, favoured cheap functional; eg K-7 prefab apartment blocks
How were K-7 apartment blocks effective?Had bathroom, kitchen and at least 2 bedrooms (Small but still bigger than kommunalka)
What was the issue with K-7 apartment blocks?recreated privacy = couldn't monitor = propaganda campaign to live socialist lives emerged
What was Brezhnev's society policy called?Social contract (gov = benefits, people = obedient)
How was Brezhnev's social policy effective in late 60s-70s?comfortable living, cheap water, electricity and rent = opposition rare
What did Brezhnev's government guarantee in the social contract?job security, low prices, social benefits + mobility, thriving 2nd economy with no gov influence
What % increase did Brezhnev's government spend on pensions and healthcare annually?4.5%
How did Brezhnev's full employment lead to stagnation in 70s?Hidden unemployment (20%), 1 million vacancies in industry unfilled = lower productivity
Why did female unemployment increase under Brezhnev?gender stereotypes meant women were refused jobs
What % of females were unemployed under Brezhnev? 10%
What was the decrease in life expectancy under Brezhnev mainly due to alcoholism?68 to 64 years
What was the increase in infant mortality in the 70s?3-7%
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