USMLE things I don't know...p.7

avi01's version from 2015-05-26 13:50


Question Answer
what subtype of Muscarinic receptors are in the eye?M3
marcus gunn pupilafferent pupillary defect
What is lewy body dementia? What gene is involved?Parkinsonism w/ dementia and hallucinations. d/t alpha-synuclein defect
DDx for dementiaAZ, Pick's dz, Lewy Body, CJD, Multiple infarcts, syphilis, HIV, B12 def, wilson's dz
what is pick's dz?Dementia, aphasia, parkinsonian aspects, changes in personality. Pick bodies are accumulations of tau protein. AKA Frontal temporal dementia
CSF in MS? Gold standard MS Dx test?CSF - increased protein (IgG) - Oligoclonal bands diagnostic. MRI is gold standard to dx - see periventricular plaques
CSF with Guillian Barre' syndromeincreased protein w. nml cell count (albuminocytologic dissociation). Increased protein can lead to papilledema
tx for Guillian Barre'resp support, IVIG, plasmapheresis
What is acute disseminated (postinfectious) encephalomyelitis?multifocal perivenular inflammation and demyelination andter infection w/ VZV, measles or with certain vaccines (Rabies, smallpox)
What is metachromatic leukodystrophy?ASR lack of arylsulfatase A, leading to sulfatide build up that impairs myelin production
What is Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy?Charcot-Marie-Tooth dz - defective production of proteins involved in structure and function of peripheral nerves or myelin sheath
Meniere's dz disorder of the inner ear that can affect hearing and balance to a varying degree. It is characterized by episodes of vertigo, low pitched tinnitus, and hearing loss.
von-Hippel-Lindau dzASD mutation of tumor suppressor on Cs 3. Have cavernous hemangiomas in skin, mucosa, organs. Bilat renal cell carcinoma, hemangioblastoma in retina, brain stem, cerebellum. Pheochromocytoma
Sturge-Weber syndromecongential d/o w/ port wine stains (nevus flemmeus) in CN V1 distribution, ipsilateral leptomeningeal angiomas, pheochromocytoma. Also glaucoma, SZ, hemiparesis, mental retardation. Sporadic occurance, "Tram track" calcifications on skull xray
Brain tumor that has Necrosis w/ pseudopalisading cells glioblastoma multiforme, most common primary brain tumor in adults
Brain tumor w. spindle cells concentrically arranged in a whorled pattern, psammoma bodiesmeningioma, then 2nd most common primary brain tumor in adults. Arises from arachnoid cells external to brain
fried egg appearing cells in a brain tumorOligodendrocytoma, rare, slow growing, usually in frontal lobe
most common pituitary tumorprolactinoma
Top 5 most common adult brain tumors1. Glioblastoma multiforme 2. meningioma 3. schwannoma 4. oligodendroglioma 5. pituitary adenoma
top 5 most common childhood brain tumors1. Pilocytic (low grade) astrocytoma 2. medulloblastoma 3. ependymoma 4. hemangioblastoma 5. craniopharyngioma
brain tumor with Rosenthal fibers (eosinophilic corkscrew fibers, Cystic AND solidpilocytic astrocytoma, usually in posterior cranial fossa
Brain tumor with rosettes or perivascular pesudorosette patterns of cells, can compress 4th ventricle causing hydrocephalusmedulloblastoma, highly malignant, primitive neuroectodermal tumor
brain tumor with rod-shaped blepharoplasts (basal ciliary bodies) found near the nucleus. Characteristic perivascular pesudorosettesependyoma, commonly in 4th ventricle, causing hydrocephalus
brain tumor that can produce poycythemia. Looks like foamy cells with increased vascularityhemangioblastoma, makes EPO
most common childhood supratentorial tumorcraniopharyngioma
Which brain tumor tends to cross the corpus callosum?glioblastoma mulitforme
name 3 short acting benzosTOM = Triazolam, Oxazepam, Midazolam
summarize MAC for inhaled anestheticsMAC = concentration in alveoli at which 50% of population is anesthetized. MAC is directly proportional to onset and recovery time, and inversely proportional to blood solubility and potency.
MemantineNMDA receptor antagonist, helps prevent excitooxicity in Alzheimers
What is the NT abnormality in Huntington's?increased dopamine, decreased GABA and ACh
What drugs are used to tx Huntington's?Reserpine and tetrabenazine (amine delpeting, get rid of Dopamine?) and Haloperidol (Dopamine R antagonist)