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USMLE Step 2 Drug SE

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jmanderson's version from 2017-06-17 20:26

Section

Question Answer
ACEIs COUGH, rash, proteinuria, angioedema, taste changes,teratogenic effects.
2. Amantadine Ataxia, LIVEDO RETICULARIS (purplish networkpatterned discoloration of the skin caused by dilation of capillaries and venules)
3. Amiodaroneacute- AV block, hypotension, bradycardia; chronic - pulmonary fibrosis, peripheral deposition --> bluish discoloration, arrhythmias, hypo-/hyperthyroidism, corneal deposition.
4. Amphotericin Fever/rigors, nephrotoxicity, bone marrow suppression, anemia.
5. Antipsychotics Sedation, acute dystonic reaction, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinesia, NMS (consists of muscle rigidity, fever, autonomic instability, and cognitive changes such as delirium, and is associated with elevated plasma creatine phosphokinase).
6. Azoles (e.g. fluconazole) Inhibition of P-450 enzymes
7. Benzodiazepines Sedation, dependence, respiratory depression.
8. Bile acid resins - Cholestyramine GI upset, malabsorbtion of vitamins and medications.
9. Carbamazepine Induction of P-450 enzymes, AGRANULOCYTOSIS, aplastic anemia, liver toxicity.
10. CCBs Peripheral edema, constipation, cardiac depression.
11. Chloramphenicol (for bacterial meningitis) Gray baby syndrome, aplastic anemia.
12. Cisplatin Nephrotoxicity, acoustic nerve damage.
13. Clonidine Dry mouth, SEVERE REBOUND HEADACHE & HTN.
14. Clozapine Agranulocytosis.
15. Corticosteroids Mania, hyperglycemia (acute), immunosuppression, bone mineral loss, thinning of skin, easy bruising, myopathy, cataracts (chronic).
16. Cyclophosphamide Myelosuppression, HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS.
17. Digoxin GI disturbance, YELLOW VISUAL CHANGES, ARRHYTHMIAS ( junctional tachycardia or SVT)
18. Doxorubicin CARDIOTOXICITY (cardiomyopathy)
19. Ethyl alcohol Renal dysfunction, CNS depression.
20. Fluoroquinolones Children Cartilage damage
fluoroquinolones Adults Achilles tendon rupture
21. Furosemide Ototoxicity, hypokalemia, nephritis, gout.
22. Gemfibrozil (fibrate) Myositis, reversible ↑ in LFTs.
23. Halothane (inhalable anesthetic) Hepatotoxicity, MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA.
24. HCTZ Hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hyperuricemia, hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia, hyperlipidemia (hyperGLUC)
25. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors Myositis, reversible ↑ in LFTs.
26. Hydralazine Drug-induced SLE.
27. Hydroxychloroquine -malaria Retinopathy.
28. INH Peripheral neuropathy (PREVENT WITH PYRIDOXINE/VITAMIN B6), hepatotoxicity, inhibition of P-450 enzymes, seizures with overdose, hemolysis in G6PD deficiency.
29. MAOIs HYPERTENSIVE TYRAMINE REACTION, SEROTONIN SYNDROME (with meperidine).
30. Methanol Blindness.
31. Methotrexate Hepatic fibrosis, pneumonitis, anemia.
32. Methyldopa + Coombs' test, drug-induced SLE.
33. Metronidazole Disulfiram reaction, vestibular dysfunction, METALLIC TASTE.
34. Niacin CUTANEOUS FLUSHING.
35. Nitroglycerin Hypotension, tachycardia, headache, tolerance.
36. Opiods Biliary colic due to contraction of the sphincter of Oddi (smooth m, rare), addiction, respiratory depression, constipation, miosis, nausea, drowsiness, itchiness, dry mouth
37. Penicillamine (chelator Wilsons, and immunosuppression for RA) Drug-induced SLE.
38. Phenytoin Nystagmus, diplopia, ataxia, arrhytmia (in toxic doses), GINGIVAL HYPERPLASIA, hirsutism, teratogenic effects.
39. Prazosin First-dose hypotension.
40. Procainamide (antiarrhythmic 1a) Drug-induced SLE.
41. Propylthiouracil Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia.
42. Quinidine (antiarrhythmic 1a) Cinchonism (headache, tinnitus), thrombocytopenia, arrhythmias (e.g. TORSADES DE POINTES).
43. Reserpine Depression.
44. Rifampin Induction of P-450 enzymes, ORANGE-RED BODY SECRETIONS
45. Salicylates Fever, hyperventilation with RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS & METABOLIC ACIDOSIS, dehydration, diaphoresis, hemorrhagic gastritis.
46. SSRIs Anxiety, SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION, serotonin syndrome if taken with MAOIs.
47. Succinylcholine MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA, hyperkalemia.
48. TCAs Sedation, coma, anticholinergic effects, seizures & arrhythmias.
49. Tetracyclines Tooth discoloration, photosensitivity, Fanconi's syndrome, GI distress.
50. Trimethoprim Megaloblastic anemia, leukopenia, granulocytopenia.
51. Valproic acid Teratogenicity leads to neural tube defects; rare fatal hepatotoxicity.
52. Vancomycin Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, "RED MAN SYNDROME" (histamine release; not an allergy).
53. Vinblastine Severe myelosuppresion.
54. Vincristine. Peripheral neuropathy, paralytic ileus.
55. Zidovudine Thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia
56. β-blockers Asthma exacerbation, masking of hypoglycemia (the tachycardia which serves as a warning sign for insulin-induced hypoglycemia may be masked), impotence, bradycardia, AV block, CHF.
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