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USMLE Reproduction Oncology

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ficks's version from 2018-03-06 03:27

Reproductive Cells

Question Answer Column 3
SpermatogoniaDiploid/2N/2C/PrespermatocytesKaryotype
Primary spermatocytesDiploid/2N/4CKaryotype
Secondary spermatocytesHaploid/1N/2C (sister chromatids still paired)Karyotype
SpermatidsHaploid/1N/1CKaryotype
SpermatogoniaMitosis/interphase/pre-meiosisCell cycle
Primary spermatocytesPre-meiosis 1Cell cycle
Secondary spermatocytesPost meiosis 1/pre meiosis 2Cell cycle
SpermatidsPost meiosis 2Cell cycle
OogoniaDiploid/2N/2C/PreoocyteKaryotype
Primary OocytesDiploid/2N/4CKaryotype
Secondary OocytesHaploid/1N/2C (sister chromatids still paired)Karyotype
OvumHaploid/1N/1CKaryotype
OogoniaMitosis/interphase/pre-meiosisCell cycle
Primary OocytesPre-meiosis 1Cell cycle
Secondary OocytesPost meiosis 1/pre meiosis 2Cell cycle
OvumPost meiosis 2Cell cycle
Primary OocytesProphase 1 until ovulationCell/life stage (prOphase until Ovulation)
Secondary OocytesMetaphase 2 until fertilizationCell/life stage (egg MET a sperm)
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Histology

Question Answer Column 3
Krukenberg tumorSignet ring cells (mucus pushes nuclei peripherally)/mucinous cells2
Serous cystadenomaLined with fallopian like epithelium1
Serous cystadenocarcinomaPsammoma bodies1
Mucinous cystadenomaMucus secreting epithelium/intestine or endocervical like tissue3
Brenner tumorCoffee bean nuclei on H/E stain/Walthard's rests (islands of bladder-like transitional epithelia/fibrous stroma)2
Ovarian FibromasBundles of spindle shaped fibroblasts1
Struma ovariiThyroid tissue1
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus)Schiller Duval bodies (primitive glomeruloid structures)1
Granulosa cell tumorCall-Exner bodies (small follicles w/eosinophilic secretions)3
DysgerminomaSheets of uniform cells/round-ovoid/clear cytoplasm3
Fibroids/leiomyomasWhorled smooth muscle bundles1
Cervical dysplasiaKoilocytes (wrinkled-raisin nucleus/perinuclear halo)3
Sarcoma botyroidesSpindle shaped tumor cells/desmin positive2
Invasive ductal carcinomaTumor cells in cords/islands/glands/dense fibrous stroma/stellate morphology5
Invasive lobular carcinomaMultiple bilateral orderly rows of cells/Indian filing2
ComedocarcinomaTumor cell necrosis/caseous necrosis of cheese like consistency2
Inflammatory breast cancerCancer cells in subdermal lymphatics/block drainage2
Medullary carcinomaScant stroma/soft fleshy consistency/lymphocytic infiltrate3
Paget's diseaseNeoplastic Paget cells (large/clear halo like area)/invade epidermis4
Phyllodes tumorCystic spaces/leaf like projections from cyst walls/myxoid contents3
Fibrocystic disease/fibrosisHyperplasia of stroma1
Fibrocystic disease/cysticFluid filled/blue dome/ductal dilation3
Fibrocystic disease/sclerosing adenosisIncreased acini/intralobular fibrosis/calcifications3
Fibrocystic disease/epithelial hyperplasiaIncreased epithelial cell layers in terminal duct lobule1
Erythroplasia of QueyratSCC/CIS2
Bowenoid PapulosisSCC/CIS2
ChoriocarcinomaMixed trophoblasts (syncytio/cyto)2
SeminomaFried egg (clear/polygonal germ cells/round nuclei)/prominent nucleoli/lobulated/septate/lymphocytic infiltrate/granulomas3
Testicular lymphomaLarge cell non-Hodgkin1
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus)Schiller Duval bodies (primitive glomeruloid structures)1
Leydig Cell TumorInterstitial/Intracytoplasmic Reinke crystals (rod shaped)2
Sertoli Cell TumorSex cord stroma (resemble seminiferous tubules)1
Embryonal carcinomaSheets of undifferentiated cells/focal glandular differentiation/papillary morphology3
Acute/early onset endometritisNeutrophils within endometrial glands2
Chronic/late onset endometritisPlasma cells within endometrial stroma2
Cervical cancer classification schemeCIN 1 (1/3)/CIN 2 (2/3)/CIN 3 (3/3 Carcinoma in Situ) as fractions of epithelial thickness3
Teratoma w/malignant transformationEvidence of carcinoma1
Fat necrosisCore of lipid laden macrophages/multinucleated giant histiocytes/other inflammatory cells/rim of fibrous tissue4
Benign intraductal papillomaIntraductal location/papillary fronds/fibrovascular core/myoepithelia/and epithelia (non-atypia)5
Malignant intraductal papillomaAbnormal mitoses/atypia/cribriform growth pattern3
Nonspecific orchitisNeutrophils1
Gonorrhea orchitisNeutrophils/look for epididymitis2
Mumps orchitisNeutrophils/look for parotitis2
TB orchitisAcid fast bacteria/granulomas2
Syphilis orchitisGummas/obliterative endarteritis/lymphocytes/plasma cells4
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Etiology

Question Answer Column 3
Chocolate cystEndometriosis in ovary/monthly hemorrhage2
Krukenberg tumorGastric hematogenous metastasis1
Follicular cystDistention of unruptured graafian follicle/possibly due to hyperestrinism2
Corpus luteum cystHemorrhage into persistent corpus luteum1
Theca-lutein cystGnRH stimulation1
Hemorrhagic cystBlood vessel rupture1
Dermoid cystMature teratoma/various tissue types1
Endometrioid cystEndometriosis in ovary1
Acute/early onset endometritisGBS/Bacteroides/Peptostreptococcus/Ureaplasma4
Chronic/late onset endometritisRetained placenta/IUD-Actinomyces israelii/Chlamydia3
Mucinous cystadenocarcinomaPseduomyxoma peritonei (intraperitoneal accumulations of mucinous material from ovarian/appendiceal tumor)1
Stromal hyperthecosisNon cancerous bilateral ovarian enlargement1
AdenomyosisEndometriosis w/in myometrium2
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)Ductal hyperplasia1
ComedocarcinomaDuctal hyperplasia/caseous necrosis2
FibroadenomaCyclosporine A can predispose1
Paget's diseaseSuggests underlying DCIS1
Vaginal SCCUsually secondary to cervical SCC1
Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinomaDES exposure in utero1
PriapismSickle cell/trauma/drugs3
Penile SCCHPV/veneral disease/uncircumcised with poor hygeine3
HydroceleCongenital/idiopathic/infection/tumor lymphatic blockage4
Varicocele/right sideRetroperitoneal fibrosis/IVC thrmobosis2
Varicocele/left sideRenal vein pathology (nutcracker under SMA)/renal cell carcinoma occlusion2
Prostatitis/acuteC trachomatis/N gonorrhoeae2 (<35)
Prostatitis/acuteE coli/P aeruginosa/K pneumoniae3 (>35)
Prostatitis/chronicAbacterial (cyclists)/progression from acute2
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Presentation

Question Answer Column 3
PCOSOligomenorrhea/hirsuitism/virilism/infertility/insulin resistance5
Ovarian FibromasMeig's syndrome (triad of fibroma/ascites/PE-hydrothorax)/pulling sensation in groin3
Stromal hyperthecosisHirsuitism/virilization (androgen excess)2
Struma ovariiOvarian mass/hyperthyroidism2
Granulosa cell tumorPrecocious puberty/irregular cycles in menstruating/vaginal-endometrial bleeding in post menopausal3
EndometriosisDysmenorrhea/Dyspareunia/Dyschezia (defecation)3
Fibroids/leiomyomasUsually asymptomatic/AUB/secondary dysmenorrhea/compression of surrounding structures/infertility5
Bicornuate uterusUrinary tract abnormalities/infertility2
EndometritisFever/lower abdominal pain/vaginal bleeding/discharge/foul smelling lochia4
Endometrial hyperplasiaPostmenopausal bleeding1
Endometrial carcinomaVaginal bleeding1
LeiomyosarcomaBleeding/protrusion into vagina2
PeyroniesDorsal penile subcutaneous fibrosis/upward curvature2
PhimosisPrepuce cannot be retracted1
Balanitis/BalanoposthitisPrepuce/glans infection2
PriapismVascular obstruction/persistent painful erection2
ProstatitisDysuria/frequency/urgency/hematuria4
ChoriocarcinomahCG causes gyncomastia1
Leydig Cell TumorPrecocious puberty in boys/gynecomastia in men2
SeminomaPainless/heaviness/pain in lower back from paraaortic mets3
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Location/Quality

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
Serous cystadenomaFrequently bilateral1Bilateral/unilateral
Serous cystadenocarcinomaFrequently bilateral1Bilateral/unilateral
Mucinous cystadenomaUnilateral1Bilateral/unilateral
Mucinous cystadenocarcinomaUnilateral1Bilateral/unilateral
Mucinous cystadenomaSolid/large (>10cm)/cystic3Location/quality
Mucinous cystadenocarcinomaSolid/large (>10cm)/cystic3Location/quality
Brenner tumorBladder like/solid/yellow-tan/appears encapsulated4Location/quality
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus)Ovary/testes/sacrococcygeal area3Location
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus)Homogenous/yellow-white2Quality
FibroadenomaSmall/mobile/firm w/sharp edges4Quality
Intraductal papillomaSmall/in lactiferous ducts/typically beneath areola/serous/bloody discharge5Location/quality
Phyllodes tumorLarge/bulk/connective tissue/cysts4Quality
Invasive ductal carcinomaFirm/fibrous/rock hard/sharp margins4Quality
Invasive lobular carcinomaOften bilateral1Bilateral/unilateral
Paget's diseaseEczematous patches on nipple/vulva3Location/quality
Bowen's DiseaseShaft/scrotum2Location
Erythroplasia of QueyratGlans/scrotum2Location
Bowen's DiseaseSingle erythematous plaque/grey-white2Quality
Erythroplasia of QueyratSingle erythematous plaque/red2Quality
Bowenoid PapulosisMultiple/red-brown/verrucoid-wart-like lesions resembling condyloma acuminatum3Quality
Bowenoid PapulosisExternal genitalia1Location
ProstatitisPerineal/lower back/DRE pain3Location
Sertoli cell tumorGrey white1Quality
ChoriocarcinomaSmall primary tumor/necrosis/hemorrhage3Quality
SeminomaBulky/gray/without hemorrhage/necrosis4Quality
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus)Yellow/mucinous2Quality
Leydig Cell TumorGolden brown1Quality
Embryonal carcinomaBulky/hemorrhagic/necrotic3Quality
Granulosa cell tumorSolid/yellow2Quality
Bartholin's gland cyst3-5cm enlargement1Quality
Condyloma acuminatumGray to white/papillary lesion (venereal wart)2Quality
Lichen sclerosisGray/parchment-like/thin epidermis3Quality
Vestibular adenitisTender posterior introitis/focal ulcerations2Quality
Vulvar squamous hyperplasiaWhite plaque1Quality
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Benign Malignant Metastases

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
Fibrocystic changesBenign (usually/only epithelial hyperplasia is a carcinoma risk)N/ABenign/malignant
Breast epithelial hyperplasiaMalignant/carcinoma riskN/ABenign/malignant
Cervical cancer can affect what other system?Block ureters/renal failureN/AN/A
Dermoid cystBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Serous cystadenomaBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Serous cystadenocarcinomaMalignantN/ABenign/malignant
Mucinous cystadenomaBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Mucinous cystadenocarcinomaMalignantN/ABenign/malignant
Brenner tumorBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Immature teratomaMalignantN/ABenign/malignant
FibroadenomaBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Intraductal papillomaBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Phyllodes tumorBenign/some may become malignantN/ABenign/malignant
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)PremalignantN/ABenign/malignant
Invasive ductal carcinomaMalignant/most invasiveN/ABenign/malignant
Medullary carcinomaMalignant/good prognosisN/ABenign/malignant
Bowenoid PapulosisDoes not invadeN/ABenign/malignant
Bowen's DiseaseMay invade/associated with visceral malignanciesN/ABenign/malignant
Erythroplasia of QueyratMay invadeN/ABenign/malignant
Sertoli Cell TumorBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Leydig Cell TumorBenignN/ABenign/malignant
Testicular lymphomaAggressiveN/ABenign/malignant
Embryonal carcinomaAggressive/can differentiate into other nonseminomasN/ABenign/malignant
SeminomaMalignant/but metastases are late (excellent prognosis)N/ABenign/malignant
ChoriocarcinomaMalignant/hematogenous (lungs/liver)N/ABenign/malignant
TeratomaMalignant in males/benign in women/childrenN/ABenign/malignant
Sarcoma botyroidesRhabdomyosarcomaN/AVariant of what other cancer
Gynecologic tumor incidencesEndometrial>ovarian>cervical3N/A
Gynecologic tumor prognosesOvarian>cervical>endometrial (worse to best)3N/A
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CIN changes

Hormones and Markers

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
BPHEstrogen/DHT2Hormones
Prostate cancerIncreased PSA/decreased free PSA/increased prostatic acid phosphataseN/AMarker(s)
BPHIncreased free PSAN/AMarker(s)
SeminomaPlacental alkaline phosphataseN/AMarker(s)
TeratomaAFP/hCG (50%)N/AMarker(s)
Leydig Cell TumorAndrogens/estrogensN/AMarker(s)
Embryonal carcinomahCG high/AFP normal in pure/increased in mixedN/AMarker(s)
PCOSLH/FSH ratio>2/increased testosterone/estrogen3Hormones
Granulosa cell tumorEstrogenN/AMarker(s)
Ovarian cancerCA-125 increaseN/AMarker(s)
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus)AFP/alpha fetoproteinN/AMarker(s)
ChoriocarcinomahCGN/AMarker(s)
DysgerminomahCG/LDHN/AMarker(s)
Cryptorchidism bilateralFSH/LH up/inhibin down/testosterone down4Hormones
Cryptorchidism unilateralFSH/LH up/inhibin down/testosterone normal4Hormones
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Genes and Other Causes

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
GynecomastiaSpironolactone/digitalis/cimetidine/alcohol/ketoconazole5Predisposing drugs/SDCAK Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers
Breast cancerBRCA1-2/p53/Rb/HER-2-neu-c-erb-Beta-2/RAS6Genes
Ovarian cancerBRCA1/2/HNPCC3Genes
Cervical cancerp53/RB2Genes
Cervical cancer etiologiesHPV 16/182N/A
HPV gene productsE6 from HPV 16 inh p53/E7 from HPV 18 inh RB2N/A
Penile SCC etiologyHPV 16/182N/A
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Epidemiology

Question Answer Column 3
Yolk sac tumor (endodermal sinus)<51
BPH50% of 50yo/80% of 80yo2
Stromal hyperthecosisObese postmenopausal women2
Sarcoma botyroidesgirls <41
FibroadenomaMost common tumor in those <351
Phyllodes tumorMost common in 6th decade1
Bowen's Disease>401
Erythroplasia of Queyrat>401
Bowenoid PapulosisYounger men1
Testicular lymphoma>50 (most common form of testicular cancer >60)1
SeminomaMost common testicular tumor (40%)1
Testicular lymphomaMost common secondary testicular tumor1
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Misc

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
HydroceleUS/transilluminationN/ADiagnosis
VaricoceleLeft1Which side more prevalent
VaricoceleUSN/ADiagnosis
CryptorchidismMIF to pelvic brinN/ATransabdominal induction
CryptorchidismhCG/androgensN/AInguinal scrotal induction
CryptorchidismSpontaneous until 3/androgens/hCG will help/6-24 months must perform orchiopexy3Treatment
CryptorchidismGerm cell tumors1Complication
CryptorchidismIncreased temperatures1Impaired spermatogenesis MOA
Seminoma1N/ANumber of cell types
NonseminomasMultipleN/ANumber of cell types
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