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USMLE GI

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rojeyude's version from 2018-02-25 19:41

Mnemonics

QuestionAnswerMnemonic
Esophageal plexusesLeft vagus to Anterior plexus/Right vagus to Posterior plexusLARP
RetroperitonealSuprarenals/Aorta (IVC)/Duodenum (2/3 parts)/Pancreas (except tail)/Ureters/Colon (asc/desc)/Kidneys/Esophagus/RectumSAD PUCKER
Layers of gut wallMucosa/Submucosal (Meissner's)/Muscularis (Myenteric-Auerbach's)/SerosaMSMS
Portosystemic anastomosesesophaGUS/rectal/umbilical Caput medusaeGut/butt/caput
Femoral regionNerve/Artery/Vein/Empty/LymphaticsNAVEL (lateral to medial/venous near penis)
VIPoma symptomsWatery Diarrhea/Hypokalemia/AnchlorhydriaWDHA syndrome
Esophageal cancer causesAchalasia/Alcohol/Barrett's/Cigarettes/Diverticula/Esophageal web/Familial/Fat/GERD/Hot liquidsAABCDEFFGH
Malabsorption syndromesTropical sprue/Whipple's disease/Celiac sprue/Disaccharidase deficiency/Abetalipoproteinemia/Pancreatic insufficiencyThese Will Cause Devastating Absorption Problems
Distinguisn Curling's from Cushing's ulcerBurn causes Curling's/Brain injury causes Cushing'sBurned by the Curling iron/Cushion the brain
Wilson's disease/hepatolenticular degenerationCeruloplasmin down/Cirrhosis/Corneal depsoits/Copper/Carcinoma/Hemolytic anemia/Basal ganglia degeneration/Asterixis/Dementia/Dyskinesia/DysarthriaCCCCCopper is Hella BADDD
Gallstones/cholelithiasis risk factorsFemale/Fat/Fertile-pregnant/FortyFFFF
Acute pancreatitis causesIdiopathic/Gallstones/Ethanol/Trauma/Steroids/Mumps/Autoimmune/Scorpion sting/Hypercalcemia/Hypertriglyceridemia/ERCP/Drugs (sulfa)I GET SMASHHED
Cholangitis SxFever/Jaundice/RUQ painCharcot's triad
Cholangitis SxFever/Jaundice/RUQ pain/hypotension/mental status changesReynold's pentad
Left v Right colon cancerLeft side obstructs/right side bleedsobstruction/bleeding
Oddball Muscarinic AntagonistsAntihistamines/TCA/Quinidine/Amantadine/Meperidine/AntipsychoticsAll These Quirks Are Muscarinic Antagonists
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Abdominal Aorta Branch Levels

BranchVertebral Level
Phrenic arteriesT12 (para-celiac)
Celiac trunkT12
SMAL1
RenalsL1
Gonadal~L2 (L higher than R)
IMAL3
Bifurcation of AortaL4
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Inguinal Canal

Abdominal StructureStructure in Spermatic Cord/Inguinal Canal
External obliqueExternal spermatic fascia
Internal obliqueCremasteric muscle/fascia
Transversalis fasciaInternal spermatic fascia
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Paracrine Cells/Location

HormoneCell LabelOrgan of Secretion
GastrinG cellsAntrum of stomach
CCKI cellsDuodenum/jejunum
SecretinS cellsDuodenum
GIPK cellsDuodenum/jejunum
Peptide YYL cellsIleum/colon
SomatostatinD cellsPancreatic islet delta cells/GI mucosa/(hypothalamus)
IgAM cellsIleum
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GI Hormones

ProductAnswerQuestionNumber
GastrinG cellsCell source1
GastrinAntrum of stomachOrgan source1
GastrinH+/gastric mucosa growth/motilityIncreases3
GastrinStomach distention/alkalinization/amino acids/peptides/vagusUpregulated by5
GastrinStomach pH<1.5Downregulated by1
GastrinIncreased by ZE/PPI/phenylalanine/tryptophanAbnormalities4
GRPGastrin releasing peptide/bombesinID2
GRPGastrin releaseIncreases1
GRPVagal neuronsCell source1
CCKI cellsCell source1
CCKDuodenum/jejunumOrgan source2
CCKpancreatic/gallbladder secretion/SoOddi relaxationIncreases3
CCKgastric emptyingDecreases1
CCKFatty acids/amino acidsUpregulated by2
SecretinS cellsCell source1
SecretinDuodenumOrgan source1
Secretinpancreatic/gallbladder secretion (CO3-)Increases2
Secretingastric acid secretionDecreases1
SecretinAcid/fatty acids in duodenumUpregulated by2
SomatostatinD cellsCell source1
SomatostatinPancreatic islet delta cells/GI mucosa/(hypothalamus)Organ source2
Somatostatinsecretion of gastric acid/pepsinogen/pancreatic/intestinal/gallbladder contraction/insulin/glucagonDecreases7
SomatostatinAcidUpregulated by1
SomatostatinVagalDownregulated by1
GIPGlucose dependent insulinotropic peptide/gastric inhibitory peptideID2
GIPK cellsCell source1
GIPDuodenum/jejunumOrgan source2
GIPInsulinIncreases1
GIPGastric H+Decreases1
GIPFatty acids/amino acids/oral glucoseUpregulated by3
VIPParasympathetic gangliaCell source1
VIPSphinctors/gallbladder/small intestineOrgan source3
VIPWater/electrolyte secretion/SM/sphinctor relaxationIncreases4
VIPDistention/vagusUpregulated by2
VIPAdrenergicDownregulated by1
VIPVIPomaAbnormalities1
NOSM relaxation/LES relaxationIncreases2
NOLoss of NO in LES may cause achalasiaAbnormalities1
MotilinSmall intestineOrgan source1
MotilinMigrating motor complexesIncreases1
MotilinFasting stateUpregulated by1
Intrinsic factorParietal cellsCell source1
Intrinsic factorStomachOrgan source1
Intrinsic factorVitamin B12 bindingAction1
Intrinsic factorAutoimmune destruction of parietal cells causes gastritis/pernicious anemiaAbnormalities1
Gastric acidParietal cellsCell source1
Gastric acidStomachOrgan source1
Gastric acidGastric pHDecreases1
Gastric acidHistamine/ACh/gastrinUpregulated by3
Gastric acidSS/GIP/PG/SecretinDownregulated by4
Gastric acidGastrinoma (low pH/ulcers)Abnormalities2
PepsinChief cellsCell source1
PepsinStomachOrgan source1
PepsinProtein degradationAction1
PepsinVagal/local acidUpregulated by2
HCO3-Mucosal cells/Brunner's glandsCell source2
HCO3-Stomach/duodenum (Brunner's only exist here)/salivary glands/pancreasOrgan source3
HCO3-Neutralizes acidAction1
HCO3-Secretin (pancreas/biliary secretion)Upregulated by3
SalivaParotid/submandibular/sublingual glandsOrgan source2
SalivaS/PS activityUpregulated by3
SalivaAmylase (starch)/HCO3- (neutralizes bacterial acids)/mucins (lubricates)Action3
Peptide YYL cellsCell source1
Peptide YYIleum/colonOrgan source2
Peptide YYAppetiteDecreases1
Enkephalins (met-/leu-)Sphinctor constrictionIncreases1
Enkephalins (met-/leu-)GI secretionsDecreases1
Enkephalins (met-/leu-)Neurons in mucosa/smooth muscle of GICell source1
DefensinsPaneth cellsCell source1
DefensinsSmall intestineOrgan source1
IgAM cellsCell source1
IgAIleumOrgan source1
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Esophageal Pathology

DiseaseAnswerQuestionMnemonic
GERDHeartburn/regurg laying down/nocturnal cough-dyspnea/adult onset asthmaSx4
Esophageal variciesPainless bleedingSx2
Esophagitis (Candida)White pseudomembraneSx1
Esophagitis (HSV-1)Punched out ulcersSx1
Esophagitis (CMV)Linear ulcersSx1
EsophagitisReflux/infection/chemical ingestionEtio3
Mallory-Weiss SyndromeAlcoholism/bulemia/mucosal lacerations from vomitingEtio3
Mallory-Weiss SyndromeHematemesisSx1
BoerHaave SyndromeTransmural esophageal rupture due to violent retchingEtio1
Esophageal stricturesLye ingestion/GERDEtio2
Plummer-Vinson SyndromeDysphagia (esophageal webs)/Glossitis/Iron deficiency anemiaSx3
Barrett's esophagusNonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium to intestinal nonciliated columnar epitheliumPathogenesis1
Barrett's esophagusGERDEtio1
Esophageal cancerAchalasia/Alcohol/Barrett's/Cigarettes/Diverticula/Esophageal web/Familial/Fat/GERD/Hot liquidsEtioAABCDEFFGH
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Malabsorption

DiseaseAnswerQuestionMnemonic
AllDiarrhea/steatorrhea/weight loss/weakness/vitamin-mineral deficienciesSx5
Tropical SprueUnknown/responds to antibioticsEtio2
Tropical SprueSmall bowelLocation1
Whipple's diseaseTropheryma whipplei infectionEtio1
Whipple's diseaseCardiac/Arthralgias/NeurologicSx3
Whipple's diseaseIntestinal lamina propria/mesenteric nodesLocation2
Celiac sprueAutoantibodies to gliaden/glutenEtio1
Celiac sprueDistal duodenum/proximal jejunumLocation2
Celiac sprueLoss of villiHistology1
Celiac sprueHLA-DQ2/HLA-DQ8/northern European descentAssociations3
Celiac sprueDermatitis herpetiformisSx1
Celiac sprueAnti endomysial/tissue transglutaminase/gliadin IgTests3
Disaccharidase deficiencyNormal villiHistology1
Disaccharidase deficiencyOsmotic diarrheaSx1
Disaccharidase deficiencyLactose produces Sx/glucose rises <20mg/dLTests2
AbetalipoproteinemiaLack of ApoB prevents chylomicron formation/fat builds up in enterocytesEtio2
AbetalipoproteinemiaEarly childhood malabsorption/neuro manifestationsSx2
Pancreatic insufficiencyCystic fibrosis/obstructive cancer/chronic pancreatitisEtio3
Pancreatic insufficiencyFat and FS vitamin (ADEK) malabsorptionSx2
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Gastric Pathology

DiseaseAnswerQuestionMnemonic
Acute erosive gastritisStress/NSAIDs/alcohol/uremia/burns/brain injuryEtio6
Curling's ulcerBurn/reduces plasma volume/gastric mucosa sloughedEtio3
Cushing's ulcerBrain injury/increased vagal tone/ACh/H+Etio4
Type A nonerosive chronic gastritisAutoimmune (associated with others)/Antibodies to parietal cells/pernicious Anemia/AchlorhydriaEtio4 A's
Type A nonerosive chronic gastritisFundus/bodyLocationN/A
Type B nonerosive chronic gastritisAntrumLocationN/A
Type B nonerosive chronic gastritisH pyloriEtio1
Menetrier's diseaseGastric hypertrophy (rugae look like brain gyri)/protein loss/parietal cell atrophy/increased mucous cellsEtio4
Virchow's nodeMetastasis of stomach cancer to left supraclavicular nodeEtio1
Krukenberg's tumorMucus Signet cell (mucus pushes nucleus peripherally)Histo1
Sister Mary Joseph's noduleMetastasis of stomach cancer to periumbilcus subcutaneous areaEtio1
Gastric ulcerGastric greater pain with mealsMeal's effect1
Gastric ulcerH pylori in 70%/lost mucosa/NSAIDEtio3
Duodenal ulcerDuodenal decreases pain with mealsMeal's effect1
Duodenal ulcerH pylori in ~100%/lost mucosa/increased acidEtio3
Duodenal ulcerHypertrophy of Brunner's glandsHisto1
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USMLE GI 2