USMLE facts 3

ang93's version from 2017-04-30 20:11


Question Answer
rathkes pouchsurface ectoderm
lens and corneasurface ectoderm
inner ear sensory organssurface ectoderm
olfactory epithsurface ectoderm
nasal & oral epith liningssurface ectoderm
epidermis, salivary, sweatsurface ectoderm
mammary glandsurface ectoderm
brain spinal cord, posterior pit, pineal gland, retinaneural tube



Question Answer
candida albicanpart of nl floral of skin and GI tract, can contaminate cultures
bean shaped cocci in pairsn mening
lancelet cocci in pairss. pneumo
food -> systemic circ -> meningeslisteria monocytogenes
ab pain, diarrhea, leukocytosis, white yellow plaques w fibrinc diff pseudomemb colitis
undercooked shellfishvibrio, HAV, norwalk virus,
soil and pigeon droppingscrytococcus neoformans - lungs and brain infxn in immunocompromised


Question Answer
L/S ratio >2mature fetal lungs
potent vasodilator of cerebral vesselsCO2
dec ICPinduce hypocapnia - vasoconstriction




Question Answer
ventromedial hypothalmus, destructionsatiety, hyperphagia
lateral hypothalamus, destructionhunger, anorexia
anterior hypothalamus destructionheat dissipation, hypertermia
posterior hypothalamus, destructionheat conservation, hypothermia
arcuate hypothalamussecrete DA (inhib prolactin), GHrH, GnRH
paraventricular hypothalamusADH, CRH, oxytocin, TRH
supraoptic hypothalamusADH & oxytocin
suprachiasmaticcircadian rhythm reg'n & pineal gland fxn
acute mania w/ maintence txcarbamazepine, Li, valproate
depressed phase bipolar disorder and maintencelamotrigine
ascending paralysis, areflexia, previous resp or GI infection or vaccination or allergyguillan barre
endoneural inflam infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes and macrophagesguillan barre
MC cause meningitis adultss. pneumo
child or adolescent progressive gait ataxia, impaired joint and vibration sensefreiderichs ataxia
progressive gait ataxia in f. ataxiadegen spinocerebellar tract
impaired joint and vibration f. ataxiadegen of columns and DRG
kyphoscholiosis, pes cavusf. ataxia
other risks of f ataxiahypertrophic cardiomyopathy and DM
where does copper accumulate in wilsonsliver, bg, cornea
bg injury in wilsonstremor, cerebellar ataxia, parkinsonism
psych sx wilsonsdepression, emotional lability, impulsitivity
defect in wilsonATP7B gene - impaired cell transport of Cu
neuron severing injryswelling, dispersed nissl, periph nuclei
ishemic damage neuronsshrinkage, deep red, pyknotic nuclei loss of nissl
migraine pxBB, antidepressants, anticonvulsants
migrain MOAtrigem activation that innrv meninges - release vasoactive neuropeptides (substance P and calcitonin gene related peptide), neural sensitization
activtion of left frontal eye field during seizure eye deviationhorizontally right
after seizure activation of left frontal eye field eyes deviatetoward left due to postictal neuroinhibiton
major cause of mortality and morbity in SAH, how is it preventedsevere vasospasm 4-12 d post (need transcranial doppler to identify) - CCB
most common complication of SAHrebleed - severe headache, n/v, change in LOC, new neuro deficits
ischemic stroke 12-24hred neurons, pyk nuclei, loss of nissl
ischemic stroke 24-72hneutrophil infiltration
ischemic stroke 3-7dmacrophage/microglial infiltration & phagocytosis begin
ischemic stroke 1-2wreactive gliosis & vesicular prolifn around necrotic area (gross: liq necrosis 1w-1mo)
ischemic stoke >2wgilal scar formn (gross: cystic area surrnd dense glial fibers >1mo)
part of CoW involved in CN3 compressionposterior CoA
wallenberg (lateral medullary)PICA occlusion, horner syndrome, ataxia (ipsilat inf cerebellar peduncle), dysarthria, dysphagia, vertigo, n/v, ipsilat facial sensory loss, contralat body sensory loss
artery involved in medial medullary syndromeASA
vessels easily injured by cervical spinal traumavertebral arteries
femoral nerve blockblock at inguinal crease (femoral canal) nerve is lateral to femoral
confusion, ataxia, opthalmoplegiawernickes encephalopathy - chronic thiamine deficiency
reye syndromeaspirin in young children, tx fever w acetominophen and ibuprofen
possible etiology behind febrile seizurescirculating inflam mediators that lower the seizure threshhold
nondominant hemisphere lesionscontralat neglect, anosognosia (lack of awareness of illness), constructional apraxia (inabil to draw objects),
test for nondom hemisphere lesionsdraw clock, bisect line
AIDS dementiacoritcal atrophy, ventricle expand
cocaine and tca's blockNET
reserpine blocksmonoamine entry into presynaptic vesicles
entacaponeCOMT inhibitor prolong levodopa ( brain and liver )
cataplexybrief loss of muscle tone pprecipated by strong emotion - narcolepsy
low CSF levels of hypocretin-1narcolepsy
sleepiness doesnt disappear after a naphypersomnolence disorder
HSV lays dormant inneural sensory ganglia (mc trigeminal)
spasmodic torticollusEPS sx, acute dystonic rxn
D2 antagonismanti psychotic - nigrostraital pathway (nL inhibitory) - excess cholinergic activity (EPS)
M1excitatory in striatum
how to rebalance dystoniaM1 antagonist - benztropine or antihistamine


Question Answer
brief psychotic disorderone or more positive psychotic sx are present for less than a month in absence of another medical disorder or substance use
SIGECAPSsleep disorder, dec interest, guilt, dec energy, dec concentration, apetite inc or dec, psychomotor retardation or agitation, suicidality
ADHD sx typesinattentive and hyperactive/impulse
reduced levels of NE and DA in prefrontal cortexADHD
tx for tx resistant depressioninhib MAO


Question Answer
blotchy red muscle fibers on gomori trichrome stainmito myopathies
mito myopathymito accum under sarcolemma of muscle fibers - irreg shaped and size
different mito myopathiesmyoclonic epilepsy w ragged red fibers (MERRF), leber optic neuropathy (blindness), mitochondrial encephalopathy w stroke like episodes and lactic acidosis (MELAS)



Question Answer
FAP geneAPC chrom 5
NF1 gene NF1 chrom 17
MC mutation in human cancersp53
LiFraumeni syndrome genep53 chrom 17
risks assocd with mutation RB1retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma chrom 13
VHL gene and dzVHL chrom 3, renal cysts, RCC, hemangioblastomas of cerebellum and retina


Question Answer
class 1 MHC componentsheavy chain and B2 microglobulin
class 2 MHC componentsalpha and beta polypeptide


Pharm – General

Question Answer
pralidoxime usesorganophosphate tox and parkinsons
tx recurret c diff infxnfidaxomcin

Pharm – Adverse Effects

Question Answer
adverse effects of clozapineagranulocytosis, seizures, myocarditis, metabolic syndrome


Question Answer
organophosphates MOAirrev inhib cholinesterase in BOTH M & N synapses
organophosphate sxDUMBELS, diarrhea, urination, miosis, bronchospasm, emesis, lacrimation, salvation
role of atropine and pralidoxime in organophosphate toxatropine inhib M receptors, pralidoxime restores cholinesterase (helps w both N & M)
jimson weedatropine