Create
Learn
Share

USMLE Endocrine

rename
keyaxegi's version from 2016-11-02 04:01

Mnemonics

QuestionAnswerMnemonic
AcidophilsGH/Prolactin/AcidophilsGPA
BasophilsBasophils/FSH/LH/ACTH/TSHBFLAT
MEN1Pituitary/parathyroid/pancreatic (ZE/insulinoma/VIP/glucagonomas/kidney stones/stomac ulcers)Diamond
MEN2AMTC/pheochromocytomas/parathyroidSquare
MEN2BMTC/pheochromocytomas/oral/intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (w/Marfoid habitus)/Triangle
Anterior pituitary hormonesFSH/LH/ACTH/TSH/ProlactIn/GHFLATPiG
Layers of adrenalGlomerulosa (aldosterone)/Fasciculata (cortisol/sex)/Reticulata (sex)/Medulla (catecholamines)GFR(M) corresponds with salt/sugar/sex/stimulation
Endocrine pancrease layersAlpha (glucagon) outside/Beta (insulin) inside/Delta (somatostatin) interspersedInsulin inside
Insulin independent glucose uptake tissuesBrain/RBC/Intestines/Cornea/Kidney/LiverBRICKL
Adrenal enzyme deficiencies17aHOase (HTN/demasculinization)/21HOase (HoTN/masculinization)/11bHOase (HTN/masculinization17 to have sex (hormones)/21 relax with a manly beer/then can have 11 baby boys
CortisolBP/dec Bone formation/antiInflammatory-Immunosuppressive/Insulin resistance/GluconeogenesisBBIIG
2nd messenger cAMPFSH/LH/ACTH/TSH/CRH/hCG/ADH (V2 receptor)/MSH/PTH/calcitonin/GHRH/glucagonFLAT ChAMP CGG
2nd messenger cGMPANP/NO/EDRFvasodilators
2nd messenger IP3/Ca2+GnRH/GHRH/Oxytocin/ADH (V1 receptor)/TRH/H1/ATII/GastrinGGOAT HAG
Steroid receptorVitamin D/Estrogen/Testosterone/T3/T4 (nuclear)/Cortisol/Aldosterone/ProgesteroneVETTCAP
Intrinsic tyrosine kinase (MAP)Insulin/IGF1/FGF/PDGF/EGFGrowth Factors
Receptor associated tyrosine kinase (JAK/STAT)Prolactin/Immunomodulators (IL2/6/8/IFN)/GHPIG
T3 functionsBrain maturation/Bone growth/Beta adrenergic effects/BMRBBBB
Pheocromocytoma10% each/Malignant/Bilateral/Extra adrenal/Calcify/KidsRule of 10s
Pheocromocytoma hyperadrenergic symptomsPressure (blood)/Pain (headache)/Perspiration/Palpitations/Pallor5 Ps
CretinismPot bellied/Pale/Puffy faced child w/Protruding umbilicus/Protuberant tongue5 Ps
Osteitis fibrosa cystica (hypercalcemia)Brown fibrous tissues in cystic bone spaces causing Bone pain/renal Stones/weakness and constipation GroansBones/Stones/Groans
Carcinoid syndromeMetasasize/2nd malignancy association/multiplerule of 1/3s
memorize

Second Messengers

1st Messenger2nd MessenterMnemonic
GHRHIP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
GnRHIP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
OxytocinIP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
ADH (V1 receptor)IP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
TRHIP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
H1IP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
AT IIIP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
GastrinIP3/CA2+GGOAT HAG
Vitamin DCytosolic steroid receptorVETTTCAP
EstrogenCytosolic steroid receptorVETTTCAP
TestosteroneCytosolic steroid receptorVETTTCAP
CortisolCytosolic steroid receptorVETTTCAP
AldosteroneCytosolic steroid receptorVETTTCAP
ProgesteroneCytosolic steroid receptorVETTTCAP
T3/T4Nuclear transcription factorVETTTCAP
FSHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
LHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
ACTHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
TSHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
CRHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
hCGcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
ADH (V2 receptor)cAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
MSHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
PTHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
CalcitonincAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
GHRHcAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
GlucagoncAMP (adenylate cyclase)FLAT CCHAMP CGG
ANPcGMP (guanylate cyclase)(G)ANE
NOcGMP (guanylate cyclase)(G)ANE
EDRF (Endothelium Derived Relaxing Factor)cGMP (guanylate cyclase)(G)ANE
ProlactinJAK/STAT (receptor associated tyrosine kinase)PIG
Immunomodulators (IL/IFN)JAK/STAT (receptor associated tyrosine kinase)PIG
GHJAK/STAT (receptor associated tyrosine kinase)PIG
InsulinMAP kinase (receptor tyrosine kinase)Growth Factors
IGF1MAP kinase (receptor tyrosine kinase)Growth Factors
FGFMAP kinase (receptor tyrosine kinase)Growth Factors
PDGFMAP kinase (receptor tyrosine kinase)Growth Factors
EGFMAP kinase (receptor tyrosine kinase)Growth Factors
memorize

Glucose Transporters

Question Answer
RBCGLUT1 (insulin independent)
BrainGLUT1 (insulin independent)
Beta islet cellsGLUT2 (bidirectional)
LiverGLUT2 (bidirectional)
KidneyGLUT2 (bidirectional)
Small intestineGLUT2 (bidirectional)
Skeletal muscleGLUT4 (insulin dependent)
Adipose tissueGLUT4 (insulin dependent)
memorize

MEN

QuestionAnswerMnemonic
MEN1Pituitary/parathyroid/pancreatic (ZE/insulinoma/VIP/glucagonomas/kidney stones/stomac ulcers)Diamond
MEN2AMTC/pheochromocytomas/parathyroidSquare
MEN2BMTC/pheochromocytomas/oral/intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (w/Marfoid habitus)Triangle
MEN inheritanceADN/A
MEN2A/B mutationretN/A
Parathyroid tumors inMEN1/2AN/A
Pituitary tumors inMEN1N/A
Pheochromocytomas inMEN2A/BN/A
MTC inMEN2A/BN/A
Oral/intestinal ganglioneuromas inMEN2BN/A
Sipple's syndrome isMEN2AN/A
Wermer's syndrome isMEN1N/A
Zollinger Ellinger syndromeGastrinoma of pancreas/duodenumN/A
Carcinoid pathophysiologyNeuroendocrine cell tumors/usually small bowel/5-HT secretion3
Carcinoid presentationRecurrent diarrhea/cutaneous flushing/asthmatic wheezing/right sided valvular disease/5HIAA in urine/Niacin deficiency6
NeuroblastomaAdrenal medulla/sympathetic chain2
Neuroblastoma geneN-mycN/A
Neuroblastoma testHVA (dopamine metabolite) elevated in urineN/A
memorize

Thyroid Pathophysiology

ConditionDetailsNumberMnemonic
Thyroid stormMost common in Grave's1Epidemiology
Thyroid stormFever/tachycardia/arrythmias (fibs)/shock/coma5Sx
Primary hypothyroidismHashimoto/post ablation/I deficiency/drugs/subacute lymphocytic thyroidits5Differential
Drugs causing primary hypothyroidismLithium/amiodarone/sulfonamides3Differential
Secondary hypothyroidism differentialPituitary hypofunction1Definition
Tertiary hypothyroidismHypothalamic hypofunction1Definition
HypothyroidismCoarse brittle hair and nails/yellow orange skin/myxedema (non pitting edema from mucopolysaccharides3Derm Sx
HypothyroidismConstipation from low motility1GI Sx
HypothyroidismCarpal tunnel1MSK Sx
Hashimoto'sLymphocytic infiltrate/prominent germinal follicles/atrophic follicles lined w/Hurthle cells (eosinic cytoplasm epithelia)3Histology
Grave'sHyperthyroidism/opthalmopathy (exopthalmos/muscle weakness)/infiltrative dermopathy (pretibial myxedema/scaly thickening)3Sx
DeQuervain'sPreceded by flu-like (mumps/coxsackie)/early hyperthyroidism/resolving after weeks3Presentation
Grave'sDiffuse/symmetrical/nontender enlargement3Thyroid PE
DeQuervain'sJaw pain/tender thyroid/fever/no lymphadenopathy4Thyroid PE
DeQuervain'sLymphocytic infiltrate/multinucleat giant cells surrounding fragments of colloid/granulomatous3Histology
Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditisNontender thyroid1PE
Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditisLymphocytic infiltrate/prominent germinal follicles/No Hurtle cells3Histology
Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditisPostpartum women/1/3 will become hypothyroid w/in 10 years2Epidemiology
Papillary carcinomaMost common (85%)1Prevalence
Papillary carcinomaWomen/20s-30s2Epidemiology
Follicular carcinomaSecond most common (10%)1Prevalence
Papillary carcinomaLymphatic metastases1Spread
Follicular carcinomaHematologic spread1Spread
MTCSheets of cells in amyloid stroma1Histology
Papillary carcinomaEmpty appearing nuclei (Orphan Annie's eyes)/psammoma bodies (calcium collection)/nuclear grooves1Histology
MTC~5%1Prevalence
MTCRET protooncogen/70% sporadic1Genetics
Anaplastic>65 y/o1Epidemiology
Follicular carcinomaRAS/PPARg/Pax8 rearrangements3Genetics
Papillary carcinomaBRAF in non-radiation/RET/PTC in pediatric or radiation3Genetics
Papillary carcinomaChildhood radiation1Predisposition
Follicular carcinomaIodine deficiency1Predisposition
Papillary carcinomaFine needle aspiration1Diagnosis
Follicular carcinomaNot fine needle aspiration (looks like normal thyroid)1Diagnosis
Myxedema comaHypothermic stupor/coma/hypoventilation with CO2 retention/hypotension4Sx
Grave'sWomen/20s-30s2Epidemiology
Congenital hypothyroidismRespiratory (hoarse cry/weak cough/slow respiration)/abdominal distention/prolonged neonatal jaundice/poor feeding-hypotonia/macroglossia/bones (enlarged fontanelles/delayed dentition/retarded bone age)/facies (coarse/wides set eyes/broad flat nose/dry skin/pale with mottled extremities)7Sx
Thyroid adenomaFollicular epithelium derived1Pathology
Thyroid adenomaLike follicular carcinoma/difficult to distinguish2Histology
Hashimoto'sTg/TPO2Ig
Hashimoto'sCD8 cytotoxic/cytokines activate macrophages/ADCC3Mechanisms of cell death
Reidel'sFibrous tissue replaces parenchyma/fibrosis into surrounding tissue2Histology
Reidel'sPossible hypothyroidism/fixed/rock hard/painless goiter4Presentation
Grave'sLymphocytic infiltrate with germinal centers/diffuse hypertrophy and hyperplasia/coloid pale and scalloped/3Histology
Grave'sHLA-DR3/B82HLA
Grave'sDiffusely increased1I123 uptake
Toxic multinodular goiterUneven increased (hot nodules)1I123 uptake
ThyroiditisDecreased1I123 uptake
Exogenous thyroid hormone intakeDecreased1I123 uptake
Acute thyroiditisFever/painful thyroid/painful cervical lymphadenopathy3Sx
Grave'sPretibial myxedema (nonpitting edema of shins)/exopthalmos only seen in one hyperthyroid state2Specific Sx
Hashimoto'sWomen/30s/40s2Epidemiology
Wolff Chaikoff effectLarge Iodine ingestion causes organification/oxidation of iodine2Physiology
Hashimoto'sHLA-DR51HLA
Jod-Basedow phenomenonThyrotoxicosis when iodine deficiency goiter receives iodine1Physiology
DM1HLA-DR3/42HLA
memorize

Misc Pathophysiology

ConditionDetailsMnemonic
Vitamin DInduces VitD dependent Ca2+ bindinb protein/calbindin-D-28KMOA
PTHM-CSF/RANKL induce osteoclast activityTertiary messenger
Conn'sAldosterone adrenal adenomaPathophysiology
SIADHChlropropamide/carbamazepine/cyclophosphamideDrug causes
SIADHMedications/ectopic tumor production (lung/SCC)/pumonary infection3 differential
Waterhouse Friderichsen syndromeAcute primary adrenal insufficiency/N meningitidis septicemia/DIC/endotoxic shock4
Chvostek's signTapping facial nerves elicits facial muscle contraction1
Trousseau's signOcclusion of brachial artery w/BP cuff induces carpal spasm1
Sheehan's syndromeIschemia of pituitary/postpartum bleeding/failure to lactateN/A
Empty sell syndromeAtrophy/compression of pituitary/often idiopathic/in obese womenN/A
DM1Islet leukocytic infiltrateHistology
DM2Islet amyloid (AIAPP) depositHistology
memorize

 

USMLE Endocrine Pharmacology
ISP 24 Endocrine Pathophysiology
NBME Physiology Endocrine