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USMLE- Endocrine and pharmacology I

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tivojito's version from 2015-09-30 19:11

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the mechanism of Propylthiouracil and methimazole?block peroxidase, thereby inhibiting organification of iodide and coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis. Propylthiouracil also blocks 5'-deiodinase which decrease peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
What is the clinical use of Propylthiouracil and methimazole?hyperthyroidism
what are the toxicities of Propylthiouracil and methimazole?skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity (Propylthiouracil) and methimazole is a possible teratogen
What is the mechanism of Levothyroxine and triiodothyronine ?thyroxine replacement
What is the clinical use of Levothyroxine and triiodothyronine ?hypothyroidism and myxedema
What are the toxicities of Levothyroxine and triiodothyronine ?tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors and arrythmias
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Section 2

Question Answer
What are the 4 classes of hypothalamic/pituitary drugs?1)GH 2)somatostatin (octreotide) 3)oxytocin 4)ADH (desmopressin)
What are the clinical uses of GH drug?GH deficiency, turner syndrome
What are the clinical uses of Somatostatin drug?acromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma and esophagal varices
What are the clinical uses of oxytocin?stimulates labor, uterine contraction, milk let-down; controls uterine hemorrhage
What are the clinical uses of ADH?pituitary (central, not nephrogenic) Drug induced
What is the mechanism of Demeclocycline?ADH antagonist (membre of the tetracycline family)
What is the clinical use of Demeclocycline?SIADH
What are the toxicities of Demeclocycline?nephrogenic drug induced, photosensitivity, abnormalities of bone and teeth
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Section 3

Question Answer
Name 5 glucocorticoids?hydrocortisone, prednisone, triamcinolone, dexamethasone and beclomethasone
What is the mechanism of glucocorticoids?decrease the production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and expression of COX-2
What are the clinical uses of glucocorticoids?Addison's disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma
What are the toxicities of glucocorticoids?Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency when drug stopped abruptly after chronic uses.
What are the signs of iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome?(buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, easy bruisability, osteoporosis, adrenocotical atrophy, peptic ulcers, diabetes (if chronic)
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