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USMLE Embryology

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juliegenam's version from 2017-09-16 15:58

Embryonic Origins

 

Question Answer Column 3 Column 4
NeuroectodermCNS/all neurons in brain/spinal cordCCOARNE
NeuroectodermOligodendroycytesOCOARNE
NeuroectodermAstrocytesACOARNE
NeuroectodermRetina/iris/optic nerveRCOARNE
NeuroectodermNeurohypophysis/posterior pituitary (anterior is Rathke puch/surface ectoderm)NCOARNE
NeuroectodermEpithalamus/pineal glandECOARNE
Neural crestDorsal root gangliaDRDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestoDontoblastsDDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestPigment cells/melanocytesPDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestEndocardial cushions (AV valves/IA septum/membranus IV septum)EDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestSpiral septum (aorticopulmonary)/Schwann cells/Sympathetic chain glanglia)SSSDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestparafollicular C cellsCDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestArachnoid/PiaAPDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestAdrenal Medulla chromaffin cells (vs mesodermal cortex)AMDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Neural crestFacial and skull bones/cartilage (pharyngeal archesFDR DP ESCAPes in the AM to save Face
Surface ectodermDistal male urethra (proximal is endoderm)DDEAD PEEL
Surface ectodermEnamel/ameloblasts (vs dentin/odontoblasts are neural crest)E1DEAD PEEL
Surface ectodermAdenohypophysis/anterior pituitary (vs neuro/posterior/neuroectoderm)ADEAD PEEL
Surface ectodermParotid salivary (vs submandibular/sublingual are endoderm)PDEAD PEEL
Surface ectodermEpidermis/accessories (hair/nails/sweat gland/sebaceous gland) (dermis is mesoderm)E2DEAD PEEL
Surface ectodermEar/inner ear/hair cells/cochlea/semicircular (vs middle and eustachian/endoderm)E3DEAD PEEL
Surface ectodermLens of eyeLDEAD PEEL
MesodermLimb musculature/connective tissue2Paraxial
MesodermLimb skeleton bone/cartilage2Lateral plate somatic
MesodermCV system1Lateral plate visceral
MesodermGU system1Intermediate
EndodermForegut (to proximal 2nd duodenum)/midgut (to proximal 2/3 transverse colon)/hindgut (to pectinate line)3GU
EndodermLarynx/trachea/bronchi/lungs4Respiratory
EndodermBladder/female urethra/lower 2/3 vagina3Caudal GU Female
EndodermBladder/proximal male urethra/bulbourethral (Cowper's)/urethral (Littre's) glands4Caudal GU Male
EndodermThyroid (follicular vs pf C cells are neural crest)/submandibular/sublingual/liver (bile tree and gall bladder)/pancreas5Glands
EndodermEpithelial lining of eustachian tube/middle ear/mastoid air cells31st branchial pouch
EndodermEpithelial lining of palatine tonsils12nd branchial pouch
EndodermThymus13rd branchial pouch ventral wings
EndodermInferior parathyroid glands13rd branchial pouch dorsal wings
EndodermSuperior parathyroid glands14th branchial pouch dorsal wings
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Pregancy Pathologies

Embryonic PathologyPresentationMnemonic Letter/NumberMnemonic
Vitamin AHead/heart/brain/spinal cord44
WarfarinStippled epiphyses/mental retardation/microcephaly/seizures/optic atrophy/fetal hemorrhage/nasal bridge hypoplasia77
CMV transientThrombocytopenic purpura (blueberry muffin) rash/hepatosplenomegaly/jaundice33
IsotretinoinCNS abnormalities/external ear/eye/facial abnormalities/cleft palate55
AnticonvulsantsCleft lip/palate in 1st trimester22
NicotineIntrauterine growth retardation/prematurity/low birth weight/fetal hypoxia/decrease O2 carrying capacity/ADHD66
High dose radiationMicrocephaly/mental/growth retardation/leukemia44
Congenital toxoChorioretinitis/hydrocephalus-macrocephaly/intracranial calcifications33
Diethylstilbestrol/DESCervical hood//incompetent cervix/T shaped uterus/hypoplastic uterus/ovulatory disorders/infertility/daughter clear cell adenocarcinoma of vagina77
ACE inhibitorsKidney abnormal fxn/anatomy11
ThalidomideFetal limb reduction/ear/nose abnormalities/cardiac/lung defects/pyloric/duodenal stenosis/GI atresia88
RubellaPDA/pulmonary artery stenosis/AV septum defects/cataracts/deafness55
Fetal alcohol syndromeMental retardation/micro/holoprosencephaly/limb deformities/craniofacial (hypertelorism/long philtrum/short palpebral fissures) anomalies/CV defects (ASD/VSD)66
CocainStillbirth/low birth weight/placental abruption/congenital abnormalities/fetal addiction55
CMV permanentMicrocephaly (macrocephaly due to hydrocephaly in toxo)MMMR DICS
CMV permanentMental retardationMRMMR DICS
CMV permanentDeafness (sensorineural)DMMR DICS
CMV permanentIntracranial calcifications (periventricular vs cortical and basal ganglia in toxo)ICMMR DICS
CMV permanentSeizuresSMMR DICS
Mesoderm failureVertebral defectVVACTERL
Mesoderm failureAnal atresiaAVACTERL
Mesoderm failureCardiac defectsCVACTERL
Mesoderm failureTracheoEsophageal fistulaTEVACTERL
Mesoderm failureRenal defectsRVACTERL
Mesoderm failureLimb defectsLVACTERL
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