USMLE- Behavioral science and physiology

mevojovu's version from 2016-12-14 23:03

Section 1

Question Answer
What include sexual dysfunction?1)sexual desire disorders 2) sexual arousal disordes 3) orgasmic disorders 4)sexual pain disorders
what are the 3 DDX for sexual dysfunction?drugs, disease and psychological
What is the equation to me sure body-mass index (BMI)?BMI= Kg/m^2
what is the name of the class if BMI<18,5?underweight
what is the name of the class if BMI= 18,5-24,9?normal weight
what is the name of the class if BMI=25-29.9?overweight
what is the name of the class if BMI>30?obesity
what is the name of the class if BMI>35?severe obesity (obesity II)
what is the name of the class if BMI>40?morbid obesity (obesity III)
what is the name of the class if BMI>45?super obesity

Section 2

Question Answer
What are the 6 different sleep stages?1)awake-beta waves (eyes open) 2)awake-alfa waves (eyes closed) 3) Stage 1-T waves (5% of total sleep time in young adult) 4)Stage 2-spindles and k complex (45%) 5) Stage 3-delta waves (25%) 6) REM- beta waves (25%)
What is the mnemonic for the EEG waveform during sleep stages?at night, BATS Drink Blood (awake eye open=Beta so highest frequency and lowest amplitude, awake eyes closed= Alpha, N1=Theta, N2=Sleep spindles and K complexes, N3= Delta (lowest frequency, highest amplitude), REM= Beta
What means stage N1?light sleep
What means stage N2?deeper sleep, bruxism (grincement des dents)
What means stage N3?deepest, non-REM sleep, sleepwalking, night terrors, bedwetting
What means REM?dreaming, loss of motor tone, memory processing function, erection, increase in brain O2 use
What is the principal neurotransmitters that initiate sleep?serotonin of raphe nucleus
What is the drug used for sleep enuresis?oral desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) which mimics vasopressin
What are the substances associated with reduced REM and delta sleep?alcohol, benzodiazepine and barbiturates
What drug is useful for night terrors and sleep walking?benzodiazepine

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the principle neurotransmitter for REM sleep?ACh and NE reduces REM sleep
Is it true to say that REM is like sex (increase pulse, penile/clitoral tumescence and decrease frequency with age)?yes its true
What is the cause of extraocular movements during REM sleep?to the activity of PPRF (paramedian pontine reticular formation/ conjugate gaze center )
What are the 6 changes in sleep patterns of depressed patients?decrease of slow-wave sleep and REM latency, increase of REM early in sleep circle and total REM sleep, repeated nighttime awakening, early-morning awakening
What is narcolepsy?Disordered regulation of sleep-wake cycles; primary characteristic is excessive daytime sleepiness. Strong genetic component
Can we see cataplexy (loss of all muscle tone following a strong emotional stimulus) and hallucination in narcolepsy?yes
How do you treat narcolepsy?daytime stimulants (amphetamine) and nighttime sodium oxybate (GHB)
What is the step of the circadian rhythm?environment (i.e. light) regulate SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus of hypothalamus)==>NE release==>pineal gland==>secretion of melatonin
When sleep terror disorder occurs?Stage N3 and nightmare occurs during REM sleep
What can cause the sleep terror disorder?emotional stress during the previous day, fever or lack of sleep