US History Test 3 Short Answerrename
amwages's version from 2016-03-23 16:42
|What was the purpose of the Philadelphia Convention of 1787?||to revise the articles of confederation|
|Discuss the Virginia Plan, |
The New Jersey Plan,
The Connecticut Compromise, Three-fifths Compromise.
|The Virginia Plan: recommended a two house legislature with both houses being represented by population of each state. This plan was also known as the Big State Plan. |
The New Jersey Plan, the Small State Plan, stated that each state should be represented equally.
The Connecticut Compromise advocated a bicameral legislature, one branch with equal representation from each state, and one house with representation based on population.
The 3/5 compromise: stated that in slave states, five slaves would equal three in a population count.
|What were the views of the Federalists and Antifederalists.||Anti-Federalists- weak central government, pro French and weak navy and army Federalist- strong central government, pro British, strong navy|
|What provisions did the Constitution of 1787 give to the Republic of the United States?||The constitution of 1787 gave the US a system of checks and balances with three branches of government (Executive, Legislative, and Judicial).|
|What was the process of ratifying the Constitution.||Each state had to have a state convention, send delegates, and ratify with a majority vote.|
|Describe the shaping of politics and society during the early years of the United States.||In the 1780s and 90s the U.S. was a new republic with a new government. Great emphasis was placed on virtue. In literature the Legend of George Washington and the cherry tree illustrated honesty, art promoted morality and virtue and educational reform stated that public tax could fund education whereby girls could be taught.|
|Discuss the domestic policies of the U.S. during George Washington’s presidency.||The main concerns of the U.S. during George Washington’s presidency were: |
to secure a Bill of Rights to the Constitution,
to select cabinet members,
to pay for the government and to set up a national bank.
$10 million capital was needed to start a national bank. New taxes were passed to raise funds. One tax was levied on whiskey, and Pennsylvania farmers rebelled. Washington elected to send troops to Pennsylvania.
|Discuss the beginnings of partisan politics during the 1790’s.||Partisan Politics developed around Federalists versus Democrat-Republicans. Washington feared that too many Democrat- Republicans were coming to the U.S. He developed executive privilege, which meant the president didn’t have to tell congress information that could potentially affect the countries security.|
|Who were the members of the first cabinet? Include their office.||Secretary of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War: Henry Knox Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson|
|What was the XYZ affair?||Adams appointed 3 representatives to go to France to settle problems; the French wanted a bribe of $250,000. The people wanted Adams to disclose the names of the French agents. Adams referred to them as agents X, Y, and Z. The Americans were infuriated by the fact that the French demanded money in order that talks could take place.|
|Discuss the views of the Federalists and the Republicans.||The Federalists believed in a powerful central government, loose interpretation of the Constitution, a powerful central bank, and a strong navy to protect shippers. Federalists were also pro-British. The Democratic-Republicans, on the other hand, believed in a weak central government, strict interpretation of the Constitution, state banks instead of a strong central bank, and a minimal navy for coastal defense. The Republicans were also pro-French.|
|Describe the elections of l796 and 1800.||1796- The Federalists nominated the VP, John Adams as the presidential candidate with Thomas Pickney as his running mate. The Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr. John Adams became president and Thomas Jefferson, vice. 1800- Votes were cast in the Electoral College. Jefferson and Burr tied and the decision was given to Congress. Jefferson won; after the election an amendment was made to change the voting process, Presidential election now was based on a party ticket.|
|Discuss the Louisiana Purchase.||France was at war with Great Britain and in need of money. The Spanish wanted to purchase Louisiana, and the Americans wanted to keep the Spanish out. Livingston went to Paris on April 30 to buy New Orleans.. They ended up buying all of Louisiana for $15 million. This was 825,000 sq mi. This purchase doubled the size of the U.S.|
|Describe the era of Jeffersonian politics.||Jefferson won the election of 1800 and he became known as the “Red Fox.” He started a message system (inaugural address) in 1801that lasted for 112 years. The Jeffersonian republicans were in power and set out to remove the Federalists. Jeffersonian politics was for the people. Jeffersonian politics contained many philosophical ideals which were difficult to implement. Basically, Jefferson learned that he had to be moderate in his approach to government.|
|Describe the Hamilton-Burr duel.||1804- Aaron Burr lost his bid to be governor because Alexander Hamilton ran someone else against him. Even though Hamilton was a Federalist, Burr challenged him to a duel and Hamilton was mortally wounded.|
|What role did John Marshall play in guaranteeing a federalist control of the Supreme Court?||John Marshall assured that there would be a balance of power in the branches of federal government. Marshall served for 25 year as Supreme Court Justice, and wrote several decisions affirming the Constitution of the United States. Marshall affirmed the Court’s right to Judicial Review.|
|Why did America want to remain neutral during the Napoleonic wars?||America was struggling to remain neutral because it helped their commerce with France and Great Britain. By not entering the war they were not taking sides and not making enemies.|
|What events made it impossible for America to remain neutral during the War of 1812?||Great Britain began to impress sailors into their navy by stopping American ships and forcing sailors to fight for them. Britain was interfering with neutral commerce. Great Britain stirred up western Indians and they were “eyeing” Canada. The USS Chesapeake was 10 miles out of port when a British ship fired on them. Three were left dead, 18 wounded; 4 impressed. Jefferson declared a no-sail zone. Congress put in place The Embargo Act. Trade plummeted, and depression occurred. Ships were rotting in the bay and unemployment rose.|
|Discuss the War of 1812.||The Americans invaded Canada. They were anticipated and defeated at Canada and the Great Lakes. The Battle of Put-in-Bay was fought on Lake Erie Commodore Oliver Perry was victorious over the British. On land William Henry Harrison defeated the British with 45 troops. This was called the Battle of Thames. In 1814 the British defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. They turned their attention to the U.S. Andrew Jackson defeated the Indians and held the British back in Pensacola. He was also victorious in Mobile and continued his march westward towards New Orleans. On January 8, 1815, Jackson, with an untrained army, killed 2000 British soldiers and only 21 Americans died in the Battle for New Orleans. Ironically, this battle was fought after the Treaty of Ghent was signed which ended the War of 1812. This war was known as the 2nd war for independence. Andrew Jackson became a national hero as a result of this war, and the U.S. was recognized as a strong contender in world affairs.|
|What spurred a renewed sense of sectionalism in America following the War of 1812?||Post war depression in industry, many new land owners had purchased new land on credit and tariffs kept them from paying off their debts, sectionalism divided the states because of views on slavery. This is evidenced when Missouri territory petitioned to become a state with slaves. This would make an uneasy balance in Congress.|
|Discuss the Missouri Compromise and the Monroe Doctrine.||The Missouri Compromise was proposed in 1820 because Missouri Territory had petitioned to become a state. Missouri wanted to be a slave state. This made for an uneasy balance in Congress. The compromise fixed the southern boundary of Missouri as the northern boundary for slave states west of the Mississippi (36˚30´). The compromise also allowed Maine to enter the U.S. as a free state. The Monroe Doctrine called for non-colonization of the western hemisphere by European nations, Non-intervention kept Europe out of the colonies, and Non-interference with the U.S. and other countries.|