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Urogenital System Imaging 2

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sihirlifil's version from 2017-11-16 16:48

Reproductive Apparatus

Question Answer
Where do we image the ovaries?Caudal to the caudal pole of the kidneys, adjacent to body wall
How big ar normal ovaries?Dogs: <2cm long. Cats: <1cm long
Appearance varies during estrus cycle
How do follicles, corpora lutea, and ovarian cysts appear on US?Small, anechoic, fluid-filled spherical structures (similar)
Just for funsies
Cystic ovaries in a guinea pig! Massive fluid-filled structures caudally adjacent to the kidneys (transverse image shows both kidneys & large cyst)
How is the uterus found on US?Scanning bladder neck area in transverse image plane. It lies ventral to the colon & dorsal to the bladder
How do the cervix & uterus look on US? Size?Dimensions depend on estrus cycle
Cervix is wider than the uterine body, around 1cm in bitch
How do the uterine horns look on US?Normal epmty: lumen is bright, hyperechoic, thin line. Wall of small intestines is ventral
What's going on?
Pregnant! look at the lil fetus skeletons. bones visible ~45d
Transverse US image of Pregnancy: 2 fetuses in their fetal sacs
Fetal heartbeat
What's going on here?
Dystocia
Overlapping bones of skull, GAS around the embryo
What's going on here?
Dystocia
Abnormal size & position
What's going on here?
Dystocia
Abnormal fetal position & presentation
Pyometra
Pyometra
Pyometra
Too dramatic to be intestines (& would be more gas in there)
US of pyometra showing fluid & sedimenting content. Severely fluid-distended
Left arrow pointing at? Right?
Left: longitudinal segment of small intestine
Right: abnormal uterine horns with abnormal fluid content & nodular cystic proliferation of the endometrium
This is cystic endometrial hyperplasia
What condition is this?
Cystic endometrial hyperplasia
Nodular cystic proliferation of the endometrium
How do these images of the canine prostate differ?
Left = NORMAL!
Right: Prostatomegaly
How should a prostate look on rads?Within pelvic canal, diameter should not be more than 60% of diameter of pelvic inlet
Craniocaudal prostatic extension should not be more than 70% of the pelvic inlet diameter
How does prostatomegaly look on rads?Extends into the abdominal cavity, pushes bladder cranially & colon dorsally
How should the prostate look on US?Pear-shaped, well-defined, granular
Urethra runs through the middle
Urethralis m. = hypoechoic tubular structure
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Heterogenous parnchyma, enlarged with multiple small cystic lesions
Prostatitis
Enlarged, mixed echogenicity
Prostatic cysts
Anechoic spaces within prostatic tissue, prostate enlarged, walls well-defined & clear
Paraprostatic cyst
What's going on here?
2 large ST opacities in cd abdomen (paraprostatic cysts) causing cranial displacement of the bladder (with CM) & dorsal displ of colon
Some mineralization (M) of the PPC
Paraprostatic cyst
Large cavernous mass expanding next to prostate, connected to prostatic tissue
Prostatic neoplasia (Carcinoma)
Heterogenous, ill-defined nodular lesions
Mineralized (hyperechoic foci w/ acoustic shadow)
Sonographic findings of prostatic neoplasiaEnlargement
Heterogenous echotexture
Asymmetry
Irregular contour/ill-defined boundary
Mineralizations (CA)
Alterations of surrounding fat/tissue
Metastasis to sublumbar LN & cd lumbar vertebrae
What are these 3 testicular images?
Left: Nodule in left testicle. Ddx Leydig & interstitial cell tumor, Sertoli cell tumor, Seminoma. NORMAL RIGHT TESTICLE (homogenous, granular, hyperechoic)
Right: Testicular cyst
Intra-abdominal cryptorchid testicle
Where can intra-abdominal testicles be found?Anywhere between the cd pole of the kidneys & inguinal area, often at lvl of urinary bladder
(yes i know it says it on there lol)Inguinal cryptorchid testicle
Problem with inguinal cryptorchidism?Predisposes for neoplastic transformation
memorize

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