Urinary TERMS

cdunbar4's version from 2016-11-01 03:59

Section 1

Question Answer
Acute renal failureclinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in renal function with progressive azotemia and increasing levels of serum creatinine
Acute tubular necrosisa type of intrarenal acute renal failure affecting the renal tubules caused by renal ischemia and nephrotoxic injury
Arteriovenous grafts. Under what circumstances would these be placed?synthetic material surgically anastomosed between an artery and a vein to provide vascular access for hemodialysis; used in place of an arteriovenous fistula for a patient with a history of severe hypertension, diabetes, prolonged IV drug use, or previous multiple IV infusions in the forearm
automate peritoneal dialysisdialysis machine that controls the fill, dwell, and drain phases and cycles four to eight exchanges per night with one to two hours per exchange
Azotemiaaccumulation of nitrogenous waste products such as BUN and creatinine
CKDprogressive, irreversible destruction of the nephrons in both kidneys resulting in kidney failure
continent urinary diversionurinary diversion to an intraabdominal urinary reservoir that is catheterizable or with an outlet controlled by the anal sphincter
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)manual dialysis by exchanging 1.5 to 3L of peritoneal dialysate usually 4 times daily with dwell times of 4-10 hrs.
continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)provides a means by which solutes and fluids can be removed slowly and continuously in the hemodynamically unstable patient; usually used to treat acute renal failure
renal biopsya procedure to obtain renal tissue for examination to determine renal disease; usually performed percutaneously with a biopsy needle
renal osteodystrophysyndrome of skeletal changes found in chronic kidney disease as a result of alterations in calcium and phosphate metabolism
renal vein thrombosisunilateral or bilateral thrombus formation in the renal vein caused by trauma, extrinsic compression (e.g., tumor, aortic aneurysm), renal cell carcinoma, pregnancy, contraceptive use, and nephrotic syndrome
retrograde pyelograman x-ray visualization of the kidneys, ureter, and bladder after direct injection of a contrast material into the kidney via a ureteral catheter introduced through a cystoscope
stricturenarrowing of a lumen

Section 2

Question Answer
costovertebral anglelandmark useful in locating the kidneys, formed by the rib cage and the vertebral column
creatinine a waste product produced by muscle breakdown
cystitisinflammation of the bladder wall
cystometrograma diagnostic test that evaluates the compliance (elastic property) and stability of the detrusor muscle of the bladder
cystoscopyinspection of interior of bladder with a tubular lighted scope
dialysistechnique in which substances move from the blood through a semipermeable membrane and into a dialysis solution; used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances and to remove waste products in renal failure
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)last stage of kidney disease; occurs when the GFR is less than 5% to 10% of normal or when creatinine clearances are less than 5 to 10 ml/min
glomerular basement membranethe thin, delicate underlining of the glomerular epithelium that is affected in glomerulonephritis
Glomerular filtration rateamount of blood filtered by the glomeruli in a given time; average is 125 ml/min with 1 ml/min excreted as urine
Glomerulonephritisan immune-related inflammation of the glomeruli characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, decreased urine production, and edema
Glomerulusa component of the nephron that is a tuft of up to 50 capillaries where blood is filtered across the semipermeable membrane into Bowman's capsule
Goodpasture syndromean example of cytotoxic (type II) autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane and alveolar basement membrane
renal arteriograma diagnostic study performed by injecting contrast media into a renal artery to visualize the renal blood vessels
renal artery stenosis (this is a major cause of abrupt ____________)a partial occlusion of one or both renal arteries and their major branches; a major cause of abrupt onset hypertension
transitional cell carcinomaa malignant, usually papillary tumor derived from transitional stratified epithelium, occurring most frequently in the bladder, ureter, urethra, or renal pelvis
uremiathe condition in which renal function declines to the point that symptoms develop in multiple body systems
urinalysis (looks at what specific things?)pH, specific gravity, osmolality and normal and abnormal constituents
urinary diversionsurgical diversion of urine drainage to the skin, abdominal reservoir, or bladder substitute

Section 3

Question Answer
hemodialysisdialysis that uses an artificial membrane (usually made of cellulose-based or synthetic materials) as the semipermeable membrane through which the patient's blood circulates
Histocompatibility testinga measure of the similarity of the antigens of donor and recipient of transplanted tissue
hydronephrosisdilation or enlargement of the renal pelves and calyces resulting from obstruction in the lower urinary tract with backflow of urine to the kidney
hydroureterdilation of the renal pelvis due to backflow of urine
ileal conduitmost commonly performed incontinent urinary diversion procedure in which ureters are implanted into part of ileum or colon that has been resected from intestinal tract and abdominal stoma is created
incontinent urinary diversionurinary diversion to the skin, requiring a collection appliance
interstitial cystitischronic, painful inflammatory disease of the bladder characterized by severe bladder and pelvic pain, urinary frequency, and urgency
intravenous pyelogram (IVP)a diagnostic study using an IV contrast media that is excreted through the urinary system, allowing for visualization of the urinary tract
lithotripsythe use of sound waves to break renal stones into small particles that can be eliminated from the urinary tract
nephrolithiasisthe formation of stones in the urinary tract
nephrosclerosisa vascular disease of the kidney characterized by sclerosis of the small arteries and arterioles of the kidney resulting in renal tissue necrosis
nephrotic syndromean abnormal condition of the kidney characterized by peripheral edema, massive proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and hypoalbuminemia; may occur in a severe primary form or secondary to many systemic diseases
oliguria less than 400 ml of urine in 24 hrs
orthotopic bladder Bladder substitutes derived from segments of the intestines that are reshaped to become a new bladder and are sutured to the ureters and urethra
peritoneal dialysisdialysis with the use of the peritoneal membrane as the semipermeable membrane
polycystic kidney diseasea genetic kidney disorder in which the cortex and the medulla are filled with thin-walled cysts that enlarge and destroy surrounding tissue
pyelonephritisinfection of the renal parenchyma & collecting system
radical cystectomysurgical removal of bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles (in men) and uterus, cervix, urethra, and usually ovaries (in women)
rapidly progressive glomulernephritisglomerular disease with sudden onset of symptoms and rapid deterioration of renal function over days to weeks

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