Upper Limbs

ilm1993's version from 2018-02-01 00:29


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Pectoral girdle (shoulder girdle)connects the arms to the body, positions the shoulders, provides a base for arm movement.
Consists of2 clavicles and 2 scapulae


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Clavicle collarbones. S Shaped bones.
originate inthe manubrium (sternal end).
Articulate withthe scapulae (acromial end).


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Scapulaeshoulder blades. broad, flat triangles
Articulate witharms and collarbone
Anterior surfacethe sub scapular fossa. Have medial, axillary and superior borders
Parts of scapulaeGlenoid cavity, Coracoid process, Acromion

Upper Limbs

Question Answer
The Humerusbrachium
The humerus also called the arm, the long upper arm bone
Arm (brachium) equal one bone, the humerus
Parts of humerusgreater and lesser tubule, fossa, the head, condyles
The forearmante brachium
Consists of two long bonesulna (medial) and radius (lateral)
The radius is the bone thatpronates (rotates)

Bones of hand

Question Answer
Carpalswrist bones
There are 8 Carpal bonefour proximal carpal bones, four distal bones, allow wrist to bend and twist
Metacarpalsfive long radiating bones of the hands
Phalangesfinger bones
Dermatonean area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate

Spinal nerves

Question Answer
ALLmixed nerves
Pairs of spinal nerves31
8cervical nerves
12thoracic nerves
5lumbar nerves
5sacral nerves
1cooccygeal nerve
Ventral root (anterior root)motor root ; axons of motor neurons whose cell bodies are in the spinal cord
Spinal nerveunion of ventral root and doral roots (mixed nerves)
Branches of spinal nervesmeningeal branch, dorsal branch/ramus , ventral branch/ ramus, visceral branch (only in thoracic and lumbar)
Dorsal root (posterior root)sensory root
Dorsal root ganglioncell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons conduct impulses inward from peripheral body parts

Nerve Plexus

Question Answer
Nerve Plexuscomplex networks formed by anterior branches of spinal nerves
Nerve Plexus is not int2 through t12
The anterior branches becomeintercoastal nerves
there are 3 nerve plexusescervical, brachial, and lumbosacral
Cervical plexusformed by anterior branches of c1-c4 spinal nerves
Cervical Plexus locationdeep in the neck
c3-c5 nerve roots contribute tophrenic nerves bilaterally
Brachial Plexuslateral cervical region and extends into axilla
Brachial plexus forms byanterior branches C5-T1
Brachial plexus lies deep within theshoulder
Brachial plexusMajor network of the nerves supplying the upper limb*

5 Branches in brachial plexus

Question Answer
Musculocutaneous nervesupply muscles of anterior arms and skin of forearms
Ulna and median nervessupply muscles of forearms and hands; supply skin of hands
Radial Nervesupply posterior muscles of arms and skin of forearms and hands
Axillary nervesupply muscles and skin of anterior lateral, and posterior arms
Roots5 anterior rami (c5-T1)
TrunksSuperior, middle and inferior
Divisionsanterior and posterior
Cordlateral, medial and posterior

Lumbosacral Plexus

Question Answer
Formed bythe anterior branches of L1-L5 roots
Can be alumbar plexus (L1-L5) and a secular plexus (S1-S5)
Extend fromlumbar region into pelvic cavity
Obturator nervesupply motor impulses to adductors of thighs
Femoral Nervesupply motor impulses to muscles of anterior thigh and sensory impulses from skin of thighs and legs
Sciatic nervesupply muscles and skin of thighs, legs and feet

Pectoralis major

Question Answer
Originclavicle and sternum
Insertion humerus
Actionadducts arm

Pectoralis Minor

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Origin3rd and 5th rib
Insertion Coracoid process of scapula
ActionStabilizes scapula

Serratus anterior

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Origin1-8 ribs
Actionrotates scapula

Posterior axio-appendicular muscles

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Trapezius Originoccipital bone, C7 and all thoracic vertebrae
Trapezius Insertionacromion, spine of scapula; clavicle
Trapezius Actionextends head; adducts scapula; stand straight
Latissimus Dorsi Originthoracic and lumbar vertebrae, iliac crest
Latissimus Dorsi Insertionproximal humerus
Latissimus Dorsi Actionmoves arm back and downward near end

Scapulo-humeral muscles

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Deltoid muscles Originclavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
Deltoid Insertion humerus
Deltoid Actionabduction of arm; raises arm even with shoulder
Rotator cuff musclesSupraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres minor, Subscapularis

Muscles in the arm

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Biceps brachii Origincoracoid process of scapula
Biceps brachii Insertionproximal radius
Biceps brachii Actionflexes forearm
Tricep brachii Originglenoid cavity; proximal humerus
Tricep brachii Insertionolecranon of ulna
Tricep brachii Actionextends forearm
Brachioradialis Origindistal humerus
Brachioradialis Insertiondistal radius
Brachioradialis Actionflexes forearm

Muscles that move the forearm and the wrist

Question Answer
Flexor in the forearm Origindistal humerus
Flexor in the forearm Insertionmetacarpals
Flexor in the forearm Actionflex wrist and arms
Extensors in the forearm Origindistal humerus
Extensors in the forearm Insertionmetacarpals
Extensors in the forearm Actionextend wrists and arms

Muscles of the hand

Question Answer
Thenar muscles formthe thenar eminence on the lateral palm aspect
Thenar muscles are responsible forthe opposition of the thumb
Hypothenar eminenceproximal to the base of the 5th finger medial side of palm
Lumbricals and interosseishort hand muscles

Arteries and veins of the hand

Question Answer
Arteries and veins of the handulnar and radial arteries and their branches supply all the blood to the hand
Nerves of the handThe median, ulnar and radial nerves supply the hand
Supination turns the palmanteriorly when the forearm is flexed
Pronation turns the palmposteriorly when forearm is flexed
Radius rotates duringpronation and supination

Shoulder (glenohumeral) joint

Question Answer
Ball and socket jointhead of humerus with gleaned cavity of scapula; Most Freely moving joint in the body (stability sacrificed)
Reinforcing ligamentprimarily of anterior aspect
Corahumeral ligamenthelp support weight of upper limb
3 Glenohumeral ligamentweak and sometimes absent

Elbow joint

Question Answer
Articulation of radius and ulna withhumerus
Hinge jointprimarily trochlear notch of ulna with trochlea of humerus; flexion and extension only
Annular ligamentsurrounds head of radius
Two capsular ligaments restrict side to side movementulnar collateral ligament and radial collateral ligament
Structures associated withsynovial joints
Bursaesacs lined with synovial membrane, Contain synovial fluid
Tendon sheathelongated bursa wrapped completely around tendon subjected to friction