Upper GI- pathology

drnieves's version from 2017-06-11 15:28


Question Answer
pleomorphic adenomaBenign mixed tumor. Painless, mobile. MC salivary tumor.
Chondromyxoid stroma and epithelium. Can recur is incompletely excised or rupture.pleomorphic adenoma
Mucoepidermoid carcinomaMC malignant salivary tumor. slow growing. Mucinous and squamous components.
Warthin tumor (papillary cystadenoma lymphomatosum)Benign salivary tumor with germinal centers.
AchalasiaFailure of relaxation of LES due to loss of Auerbach plexus.
AchalasiaDysphagia. Increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Birds beak
2ry achalasiaFrom Chagas disease (T. cruz) or malignancies (mass effect).
Boerhaave syndromeTransmural, distal esophageal + pneumomediastinum due to violent retching. 911
Eosinophilic esophagitisInfiltration of eosinophils in atopic patients. Unresponsive to GERD. Food allergies- dysphagia, heartburn, strictures.
Esophageal varicesDilated submucosal veins 2ry to portal htn. Alcoholics.
Esophgeal varices txBand ligation, sclerotherapy, balloon tamponade
EsophagitisAss with reflux; infection in immunocompromised, or chemical ingestion.
GERDHeartburn and regurgitation upon lying down. Nocturnal cough and dyspnea, adult onset asthma. Decrease in LES tone.
Mallory weiss syndromeMucosal laceration due to severe vomiting. Hematemesis. Alcoholics and bulimics.
Plummer vinson syndromeDysphagia, iron deficiency and oesophageal webs. Ass with glossitis
Plummer vinson syndromeRisk of oesophageal squamous carcinoma.
Sclerodermal esophageal dysmotilitySm atrophy leads to decrease LES P and dysmotility. Reflux + dysphagia CREST syndrome
Barrets esophagusMetaplasia (nonkeratinized stratifies squamous epithelium with intestinal)
Barrets esophagusNonciliated columnar with goblet cells in distal esophagus due to GERD. Increased risk of adenocarcinoma.
Esophageal cancer risk factors:Achalasia, alcohol (sq), barrets esophagus, cigarettes, diverticula (sq), esophageal web (sq), familial, obesity (adeno), FERD, hot liquids (sq)
Acute gastritis (erosive)NSAIDs decrease PGE2- decrease mucosal protection Burns (curling ulcer)- decrease plasma V- sloughing of mucosa. Brain injury (Cushing ulcer)- increase vagal stimulation- Increase ACh- increase H
Chronic Type AFundus/body Autoimmune to parietal cells, pernicious anaemia, and achlorydia. Loss of rugal folds
Chronic Type BGastric hyperplasia of mucosa. Increased risk of gastric cancer. Hypertrophied rugae, excess mucus, protein loss and parietal destruction (decreased acid).
Intestinal cancerAss with H pylori, smoked foods, tobacco, achlorydia, chronic gastritis.
Intestinal cancerCommonly on lesser curvature; ulcer-like with raised margins.
Diffuse cancerSignet ring cells (mucin filled cells with peripheral nuclei). Stomach wall thickened and leathery (linnets plastica).
Virchow nodeInvolvement of Left supraclavicular node by metastasis from stomach.
Krukenberg tumorBilateral metastases to ovary. Signet cells.
Sister mary josehp nodulePeriumbilical metastasis