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Unit 3 Part 2

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kloeffler's version from 2016-08-07 20:00

Section

Question Answer
This forms the middle of the anterior part of the thoracic cagesternum 76
What ribs attach to the manubrium? 1st pair of ribs 81
What structure closed the inferior thoracic aperture?diaphragm 79
The head of the ribs articulate with what at the costovertebral joint?superior and inferior costal facets and adjacent IV disc 79
What movement is described at the pump handle movemnt?sternum 83
What movement is described as the bucket handleribs 83
People experiences this describe the pain as a crushing substernal painheart attack 83
Fracture of the ribs can be very serious because they can..puncture other organs, lungs diaphragm, spleen 83
Multiple rib fractures may allow sizable segment of the anterior and or lateral thoracic wall to move feely si called what?flail ribs 83
List three areas in which thoracic outlet syndrome may occur.between the scalene muscles, between the 1st rib and clavicle and by the pectoralis minor m 85
Where do rib dislocations occur?costal cartilage from the sternum 85
What does rib separation refer to? dislocation of the costochondral junction which is between the ribs and costal cartilage 85
Explain what happens in hemiparalysis of the diaphragm.instead of descending as it normally does during inspiration owing to diaphragmatic contraction the paralyzed dome ascends as it is pushed superiorly by the abdominal viscera that are being compressed by the active contralateral dome. Instead of ascending during expiration, the paralyzed dome descends in response to the positive pressure in the lungs 85
What muscles on the lateral cervical and vertebral regions directly elevate the 1st and 2nd ribs?middle 1st rib posterior 2nd rib
What are the muscles of the thoracic wall?serratus posterior, levatores costarum, intercostal, subcostal, and transversus throacis. 86
What lung has a lingula?Left lung 113
What covers the heart?pericardium 113
Describe dyspneadifficulty breathing. sit with hands on knees or on the back of a chair to activate the accessory respiratory muscles 96
What causes the herpes zoster infection?shingles, infection of spinal ganglia 96
Explain pulmonary collapse.elasticity casues them to collapse if distension is not maintained. If there is a penetrating wound the air is sicked into the pleural cavity because of the negative pressure. What is pneumothorax?
What is pneumothorox?air is sucked into the pleural cavity. 121
What is hydrothorax?fluid in the pleural cavity 121
What is hemothorax?Blood in the pleural cavity 121
What two things are used to treat a pulmonary collapse?thoracentesis and a chest tube 121
Pleuritis causes what?inflammation of the pleura causing the surface of the lungs to become rough 122
Aspiration of ofreign bodies are most likely to go into which lung?right 123
Deep vein thormbosis is associated with obstruction of what?Pulmonary a causing a pulmonary embolism 126
If an individual has a pulmonary embolism obstructing a pulmonary artery is may lead to what?acute respiratory distress 124
What is hemoptysisspitting of blood from the lungs. most common causes are bronchitis, lung cancer, pulmonary embolizam and tuberculosis. 125
Referred pain happens...pain is projected to dermatomes supplied by the same spinal ganglia and segments of the spinal cord 125
Diaphragm referred painthoracic and abdominal walls and shoulder and neck 126
What are the 9 regions of the abdomen?R and L hypochondrium, flank and inguinal and epigastric, umbilical, pubic 185
The anterolateral abdominal wall is bounded superior and inferiorly by what?Sup: 7th-10th ribs and the xiphoid processo f the sternum and Inf by the inguinal lig 184
What are the muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall?External and internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis 187
As a group the anterolateral muscles do what functions?compress and support abdominal viscera, move the trunk and help to maintain posture 193
WHat happens the anterolateral muscles during inspiration?They expand making room for the organs 193
True of False: the dermatomes of the anterolateral abdominal wall follows the peripheral nerve distribution except for at L1 where it bifurcates true 193
What is peritonitis?inflammation of the peritoneum due to bacterial infection due to rupture or penetration of appendix or ulcer 223
What is acsies?excessive fluid int eh peritoneal cavity 224
What are adhesions?scar tissue formed after puncture creating abnormal attachments between viscera. they may limit the normal movement of the viscera 224
What is paracentesis?surgical puncture of the peritoneal cavity for the aspiration or drainage of fluid 224
Abscess formation?perforation of ulcer, appendix or rupture of gallbladder may lead to the formation (pus) 225
Spread of pathological fluids?peritoneal recesses determine the extent and direction of the spread of fluids they may enter the peritoneal cavity when an organ is diseased or injured. 225
What runs through the caval opening and where in the diaphragm is it located?Inferior veina cava central tendon 306
What are the three parts of the diaphragm?sternal, costal, and lumbar 306
Where is the esophageal hiatus located and what runs through it?Right curs and esophagus 306
What forms the aortic hiatus?Left and right crura 307
What is in the posterior abdominal wall?5 lubar vertebrae, psoas major minor and iliacus, quadratus lumborum, internal and external oblique, transversus abdominis, diaphragm, fascia, lumbar plexus 309
What does the psoas major do?acting inferiorly with the iliacus it flexes thigh; acting superiorly is flexes vertebral column laterally; it is used ot balance the trunk; when sitting it acts inferiorly with iliacus to flex trunk 312
Trace the aorta form the thoracic aorta downthoracic aorta though the aortic hiatus becomes the abdominal aorta it bifurcates into the left and right common iliac arteries andd then further into the internal and external iliac arteries 314
What makes the sound of hiccups?The epiglottis quickly closing during inspiration 317
Rupture of the diaphragm and herniation of viscera is due to what?A sudden increase in intrathoracic or intra-abdominal pressures 317
Diaphragmatic ruptures are most commonly on what side?Left because of the positioning of the liver 317
A protrusion of part of thestomack into the thorax through the esophageal hiatus is called whathiatal hernia 317
When any of these organs, kidneys, ureters, cecum, apendix, sigmoid colon, pancreas, lumbar lymph nodes, or nerves of the posterior abdominal wall, are disease movement of this will cause painiliopsoas muscles 318
What is found in the upper left quadrant?spleen pancreas, stomach
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