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Unit 3 Part 1

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kloeffler's version from 2016-08-07 17:12

Section

Question Answer
What joint facilitate and control the vertebral column's flexibility?zygapophysical joint
What is the only vertebra to bear weight in the erect posture?L5
At what vertebra is the spinal canal thinnest and the spinal cord thickest?L5
What section of the vertebral column has the most movement?Cervical vertebrae
Where do the spinal nerves emerge from the vertebral column?Interveretbral foramina
What cervical vertebra is the strongest?C2 axis
Vertebral osteoperosis is most commonly found in what section of the vertebral column?thoracic vertebrae 457
What is removed in a laminectomy?one or more spinous processes and the adjacent supporting vertebral laminae 457
This provides a strong attachment for vertebral bodies, makes up 20-25% of the vertebral column, permits movement between adjacent vertebrae and serves as a shock absorber.IV disc 464
The hard outside of an IV disc is called?Annulus fibrosus 464
The gel like inside of an IV disc is called?nucleus pulposus 464
The thickness of the IV discs thickens as it ascends or descends?descends 465
This covers and connescts the anterolateral aspects of the vertebral discs and IV discs.anterior longituidinal ligament 465
This runs within the vertebral canal along hte posterior aspect of the vertebral bodiesposterior longitudinal ligament 465
Range of the vertebral column is limited bythickness, elasticity and compressibility of the IV discs; shape and orientation of the zygapophysical joints; tension of hte joint capulsues of the zygapophysical joints; resistance of the back m and lig; attachment to the thoracic cage; bulk of surrounding tissues 470
Which sections of the vertebral column have the most movement?cervical and lumbar 470
Flexion of the vertebral column is greatest at what region?cervical region 470
What are two reasons why the thoracic region has the least amount of movement?Ribs and small IV discs 470
Kyphosis concaves?anteriorly 470
Lordosis concaves?posteriorly 470
What part of the IV disc becomes dehydrated with age limiting movement of the vertebral column?nucleus pulposus 474
Herniation of the nucleus pulposus ususally extends in what direction?posterolaterally; where the annulus fibrosus is realtively thin 474
What region is a herniated nucleus pulposus most likely to occur in?lumbar region 474
The majority of lumbar disc protrusions occur where?L5 474
What nerve may be damaged in a herniated L5 disc causing radiating pain down the persons legs?Sciatic n 474
Compression fractures affect what part of the vertebra?Body 477
What is stretched in extreme hyperextension of the neck?anterior longitudinal ligament 477
What vertebrae are the most commonly fractured outside the cervical vertebrae?T11 and T12 because of the drastic change in mobility between the thoracic and lumbar regions 478
Excessive anterior tiliting of the pelvis is known asexcessive lumbar lordosis 480
What are some causes of lumbar lordosis?pregnancy and obesity 480
What is characterized by abnormal lateral curvature that is accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae?scoliosis 481
What are the superficail extrinsic back muscles?lat, trap, rhomboids, levator 482
What are the intermediate extrinsic back muscles?serratus posterior superior and inferior 482
What are the intrincis back muscles innervated byposterior rami of spinal nerves 482
what do the intrinsic back muscles do?maintain posture and control movements of the vertebral column 482
What muscles make up the superificial intrinsic back muscles?splenius capitis and cervicis 485
What muscles make up the intermediate intrinsic back muscles?erector spinae m 485
What muscles make up the deep intrinsic back muscles?rotatores multifidus semispinalis
What muscles produce ipsilateral rotation of the atlanto axial joint?obliquus capitis inferior m, rectus capitis posterior major and minor, longissimus capitis m , spelnius capitis 494
What muscles produce contralateral rotation of the atlant axial joing?sternocleidomastoid and semipsinalis capitis m 494
The spinal cord is a continuations of what?Medulla oblingata 496
The spinal cord ends and becomes what?Conus medullaris 496
The lumbar spinal nerves (blank) in size from superior to inferior, where as the IV foramina (blank) in size?nerves INCREASE foramina DECREASE 505
Injury to C1-C3 will cause?tetraplegia and need for ventilator
Injury to C6-C8Loss of lower limb function along with loss of hand and a variable amount of upper limb function 506
What muscle divides the anterior and lateral cervical regions?sternocleidomastiod m 989
Acting bilaterally the sternocleidomastoid does what?flex the neck, extend the neck, proturde chin 491
How is the sternocleidomastiod tested?the head is turned to the opposite side against resistance 992
What muscles are in the lateral cervical region?spelnius capitis, levator scapulae, middle scalene and posterior scalene 992
Follow the right common carotid a from the heart up?bracahiocephalic a --> right common carotid --> it bifurcates and becomes the external and internal common carotid (the internal common carotid has the carotid sinus) from the brachiocephalic a it become the subclavian a which gives off the vertebral a
Follow the external jugular vein from the neck region downexternal jugular vein goes into the subclavian v which goes into the brachiocephalic v and into the superior veina cava through the right atrium into the inferior veina cava 995
what muscles make up the anterior cervical region? suprahyoid m and infrahyoid muscles 1001
What are the functions of the suprahyoid muscles?elevate the hyoid, make up the floor of the mouth, and provide base for which the tongue functions 1001
What are the functions of the infrahyoid muscles?anchor the hyoid, sternum, clavicle, and scapula and depress the hyoid and larynx during swallowing 1001
What is torticollis?contraction or shortening of cervical muscles that produces twisting of the neck ans slanting of the head 1007
A central line is most commonly placed in what vein?Right or left subclavian v 1008
Lesion of CN XI causes what?damage to the sternocleidomastiod; may have weakness when head to opposite side against resistance and unilateral paralysis of the trapezius m causing drooping of the shoulder. 1009
Paralysis of the phrenic nerve causes what to happen?hemiparalysis of the diaphragm. when you inhale diaphragm depresses and when you exhale the diaphragm elevates 1009
What procedure is used when a carotid artery is occlused?endarterectomy- removal of the blood clot 1010
What is carotid sinus hypersensitivity?external presure on the carotid a may causse slowing of the heeart rate, a fall in blood pressure, and the person may faint. Inability to adapt to blood pressure changes 1010
What muscles make up the anterior vertebral muscles?rectus capitis anterior, anterior scalene, longus colli and longus capitis
What muscles make up the lateral vertebral muscles?rectus capitis lateralis, spelius capitis, levator scapulae, middle and posterior scalene 1012
What do the sublcavian arteries supply?upper limbs, neck and brain 1015
What nerve runs parallel to the common carotid a?vagus n 1015
What cranial nerve is the vagus n?CN X (10) 1016
Where does the recurrent laryngeal nerve arise from?vagus n 1016
Where does the phrenic n come from?C4
What is Horners syndrome?lesion of cervical sympathetic trunk. characterized by contracation of pupil, drooping of eyelid, sinking of eyes and vasodialation 1017
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