Unit 3 Biology.

reynej's version from 2016-05-27 02:42


Question Answer
DiffusionPassive movement of a solute from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
OsmosisPassive diffusion of free water molecules across a differentially permeable membrane from a dilute solution to more concentrated solution.
Active TransportMovement of substances across membranes that requires energy. Uses selective protein channels.
Facilitated DiffusionPassive diffusion through selective protein channels in membranes.
Partially PermeableA membrane that allows the molecules of a solvent to pass freely across, but prevents the free passage of at least some solute molecules.
CoenzymeA very small that combines with an enzyme and is necessary for its activity.
CofactorMetallic cation required for the proper function of particular enzymes.
EnzymeProtein that catalyses chemical reactions in living organisms. An enzyme is specific for a particular reaction and is reusable.
GlycolysisFirst stage in the breakdown of glucose. Occurs in the cytoplasm, is anaerobic and produces 2 molecules of ATP for each glucose molecule.
FermentationStage in the breakdown of glucose that follows glycolysis when there is no oxygen present. Produces either lactic acid (animals) or ethanol and carbon dioxide (plants).
Aerobic respirationoxygen is consumed by oxidation (eg. Of glucose) and carbon dioxide produced. Usual way of gaining energy.
Anaerobic respirationThe breakdown of substances, and release of energy without the use of oxygen. Glycolysis then fermentation. Only used when oxygen is not present.
PyruvateThree carbon molecule that is a product of glycolysis. Is a substrate for the krebs cycle.
Basal metabolic rateAmount of energy required to maintain basic functions in a resting unstressed animal per unit of time.
GeneThe unit of hereditrary; a sequence of nucleotides that encodes a protein, tRNA, mRNA or rRNA molecule.
NucleotidesA molecule consisting of a 5-carbon sugar, nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group; the main building blocks for nucleic acids.
Chaperone proteinsA range of proteins whose normal function is to ensure the correct folding (tertiary structure) of newly synthesised proteins.
ProteomeProtein products of the genome.
GenomeThe full set of chromosomes present in the nuclei of normal cells of a species.
CodonBasic unit of the genetic code; a sequence of three bases (a triplet) which specifies a single amino acid o which directs translation to begin or stop.
AnticodonThree bases in a transfer RNA molecule (tRNA) that are complementary to a triplet codon on a messenger RNA molecule (mRNA).
TranscriptionProcess by which a base sequence in DNA is used to produce a base sequence in RNA.
TranslationProcess by which the base sequence of an rRNA molecule is used to produce the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
Base Pairing RuleThe direct pairing of A and T bases and G and C bases in a DNA molecule.
Primary structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaterary Structure