Unit 2 - Mesopotamia

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Question Answer
What type of government was present in ancient Sumer?Monarchy
How were the social classes ranked in Mesopotamia?Most to Least Powerful: King, Priests, Merchants, Slaves
Why did people settle near the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers?Fertile soil
What is a pull factor?Something that makes people want to move to an area (it PULLS them in)
What is a push factor?Something that makes people leave an area (it PUSHES them away)
What is Hammurabi's Code?The first set of written laws with specific crimes and punishments (written by King Hammurabi)
How was Hammurabi's Code similar to democracy?The laws applied to everyone in the society
Why might Hammurabi's Code be considered unfair?The punishments for breaking laws depended on the social class of the person that committed the crime (harsher punishments for slaves than nobles)
How did the Phoenicians practice cultural diffusion?Produced and traded clothing that was dyed by purple from the snails in their region
What was the regional specialization of the Phoenicians?Purple dye from snails
What is polytheism?Belief in many gods
What is monotheism?Belief in one god
Were the Sumerians considered polytheistic or monotheistic?Polytheistic (believed in many gods)
Were the Israelites considered polytheistic or monotheistic?Monotheistic (believed in one god)
How did record keeping begin and how did it change over time?Earliest to latest: clay tokens, pictographs, cuneiform, alphabet letters
What is cuneiform?Wedge-shaped writing done by scribes on clay tablets
What is a city-state?A city that is also a separate and independent state
Give an example of a city-state in Mesopotamia.Kish
What is an empire?Many territories and people controlled by one government
What is a conquest?The use of force to gain control of other people, land, or possessions
What is a scribe?A professional writer
What is famine?A time when there is so little food that many people starve
What is a ziggurat?Located at the center of the city, it is the site of the temple to gods in Sumerian cities
What is a command economy?An economic system in which all decisions are made by the ruler of a government
What is specialization?The product or skill that an area/person is known for (their job, the product they mainly sell, etc.)
What is opportunity cost?Opportunity costs are what you give up based on a decision that you've made. (Example: Let's pretend that you have $5 and an apple, a pear, and an orange each cost $5. You decide to buy the apple. The orange and the pear are your opportunity costs because that is what you gave up buying because you bought the apple.)
How is the economic question "what to produce?" answered?The product being made
How is the economic question "how to produce?" answered?The process of making a product
How is the economic question "for whom to produce?" answered?The people that will use the product
What is irrigation?A system where people dig trenches or canals to bring water from rivers to their farms
What is cultural diffusion?The spread of culture/ideas
What is a surplus?More than what is needed
What is a social class?A group of people with similar backgrounds, incomes, and ways of living
What is agriculture?Farming
What are physical features?Features found in the ground/on earth (NOT made by humans) (Examples: mountains, rivers, lakes)
What are natural resources?Resources found in the ground/on earth (NOT made by humans) (Example: stone)
How did the Phoenician alphabet change the way that people lived?It allowed for more widespread written communication.
What would happen if a ruler conquered a place within Mesopotamia? Was he safe?He was not safe. He would become a new target for people to conquer.
What happened because the Assyrians were constantly under attack?The Assyrians became great soldiers and began to go on conquests and take over other lands.
How did Hammurabi expand Babylon?He went on conquests and created an empire.
What are the 5 characteristics of a civilization?1. Advanced Technology, 2. Advanced Cities, 3. Specialized Workers, 4. Government, 5. Written Language