Unit 1 Pharmacology - Chapter 3 starting with number 8 through Chapter 5

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Section 1

Question Answer
Amount of drug required to keep drug level steadyMaintenance dose
Amount of drug that can cause deathLethal dose
Amount of drug that can cause dangerous side effectsToxic dose
The action of two drugs in which one prolongs or multiplies the effect of the other. Drug A may be said to potentiate the effect of drug B. This interaction is often used in pain medicationsPotentiation
Drugs working together for a better effect. The action of two drugs working together in which one helps the other simultaneously for an effect that neither could produce alone.Synergism
Drugs working against each other or counteracting each other's effectAntagonism
Acquired need for a drug, with symptoms of withdrawal when discontinuedDependence
Unusual response to a drug, other than expected effectIdiosyncrasy
Effects on a fetus from maternal use of a drugTeratogenic
Decreased response after repeated use of a drug, increased dosage required for effectTolerance
An allergy or immune response to a drug is calledHypersensitivity reaction

Section 2

Question Answer
Allergic reactions to drugs may be mild, with symptoms such as?Rash or hives
Allergic reactions to drugs are more common in patients with?Known allergies
Severe allergic reaction with shock, laryngeal edema, and dyspnea is called?Anaphylactic reaction
Treatment of severe anaphylactic reactions can include the following?CPR, epinephrine (Adrenalin), corticosteroid, antihistamine and fluid replacement
Which route of drug administration is used most often and why?Oral, it is the easiest and probably cheapest
Which route of drug administration is fastest?IV
A tablet placed under the tongue?Sublingual tablet
A tablet placed in the cheek pouch?Buccal tablet
A tablet dissolved in the mouth for local action?Lozenge
A coated tablet that dissolves in the intestines instead of in the stomach?Enteric coated

Section 3

Question Answer
A tablet or capsule that has delayed action over a longer period of time?Sustained-release or time-release
A liquid drug form with an alcohol base?Elixir, fluid extract
A liquid medication that must be shaken before administration?Suspension
Drugs given by the rectal route include?Suppositories and enema solutions
The parenteral route refers to any route other than the gastrointestinal route. name four parenteral routes?Intramuscular, intravenous, intraosseous, subcutaneous, intradermal, epidural, topical and inhalant
Topical drug forms include those applied to the?Skin and mucous membranes
Medicine for injection is contained in two types of glass containers - a. With rubber stopper on top? b. all glass to be broken at the neck?Vial , ampule
Needles are selected according to two measurements?Length and gauge
The three most commonly used syringes for injections are?TB, insulin, and 2 to 3 mL hypodermic
Which is the oldest system of measurement for medication?Apothecary system
Which system of drug measurement is used most frequently throughout the world?Metric system
Which is the least accurate system for measuring medicine?Household system
Two different types of equiment used to measure drugs are?Medicine cups and calibrated syringes

Section 4

Question Answer
Interpret the following order - Keflex 250-mg cap PO q6hKeflex 250-milligram capsule by mouth every six hours
Interpret the following order - Neosporin ophth sol 2 gtt in each eye tidNeosporin ophthalmic solution two drops in each eye three times daily (tid)
Interpret the following order - Feosol 65-mg tab bid pc c orange juiceOne Feosol 65-milligram tablet two times a day (bid), after meals and with orange juice
Interpret the following order - diuril 500 mg PO qAMDiuril 500 milligrams by mouth every morning
Interpret the following order - Dyazide 1 cap bidDyazide 1 capsule twice a day
Interpret the following order - Demerol 50 mg IM q4h PRN for painDemerol 50 milligrams intramuscularly every 4 hours as needed for pain
Interpret the following order - Metamucil 1 tsp mixed c 8oz H2O bid pcMetamucil 1 teaspoon mixed with 8 ounces of water twice a day after meals (pc)
Interpret the following order - Dulcolax supp R PRN for constipationDulcolax suppository (r) rectally as needed for constipation
Interpret the following order - Robitussin syr 1 tsp q4h PRN for coughRobitussin syrup 1 teaspoon every 4 hours (1tsp q4h) as needed for cough
Interpret the following order - Nitrostat 1 tab SL PRN for angina attack, may repeat q5min 3 timesNitrostat 1 table sublingually as needed for angina attack, may repeat every 5 minutes for three times

Section 5

Question Answer
Interpret the following order - Phenergan supp 25mg PRN q6h for nauseaPhenergan suppository 25 milligrams as necessary every 6 hrs (PRN q6h)
Interpret the following order - Discontinue Phenergan 48h post-opDiscontinue Phenergan 48 hours after surgery
Interpret the following order - Glipizide 5mg PO daily c breakfastGlipizide 5 milligram by mouth with breakfast
Interpret the following order - Cefazolin 1g IVPB q8hCefazolin 1 gram intravenously by IV piggyback every eight hours
Interpret the following order - Potassium chloride 20 mEq in NS 1L IV to run at 80 mL per hourPotassium Chloride 20 milliequivalents in Normal Saline Intravenously to run at 80 milliliters per hour
Interpret the following order - NPH Insulin 20 units subcu daily ac breakfastInsulin 20 units subcutaneously daily before breakfast
Interpret the following order - Glyburide 2.5 mg daily c breakfastGlyburide 250 milligrams every day with breakfast
Interpret the following order - Gentamicin ophth sol 1 gtt q3h in the right eyeGentamicin ophthalmic solution 1 drop in the right eye every 3 hours
Interpret the following order - Cefaclor suspension 20 mg/kg/day in 2 equal doses q12hCefaclor 20 milligrams daily in 2 equal doses every 12 hours
Interpret the following order - Ambien 5mg for sleep PRN, may repeat once q nocambien 5 milligrams for sleep as needed, may repeat once every night

Section 6

Question Answer
1,000 mg = ?1 gram
75 mg = ?0.75 grams
1kg = ?2.2 pounds
1 lb = ?0.453592 kg
1 tsp = ?5 mL
1 tbsp = ?15 mL
100 kg = ?220 lbs
0.5 g = ?500 mg
1 g = ?1000 mg
150 lb = ?68.2 kg