Unit 1 Constitutional Underpinnings

pafuveni's version from 2016-12-05 16:58

Section 1

Question Answer
Democracya system of selecting policymakers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to the public's preferences
Elite & Class Theorya theory of government and politics contending that societies are divided along class lines and that an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the formal niceties of governmental organization
Hyperpluralisma theory of government and politics contending that groups are so strong that government is weakened. Hyperpluralism is an extreme, exaggerated, or perverted form of pluralism
Linkage Institutionthe channels or access points through which issues and people's policy preferences get on the governments' policy agenda. In the United States, elections, political parties, interest groups, and the mass media are the three main linkage institutions
Pluralist Theorya theory of government and politics emphasizing that politics is mainly a competition among groups, each one pressing for its own preferred policies
Policy Agendathe issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actually involved in politics at any given point in time.
Policy Gridlocka condition that occurs when no coalition is strong enough to form a majority and establish policy has met its goal and at what costs
Policymaking Institutionsthe branches of government charged with taking action on political issues. The U.S. Constitution established three policymaking institutions - the Congress, the presidency, and the courts. Today, the power of the bureaucracy is so great that most political scientists consider it a fourth policymaking institution.

Section 2

Question Answer
Natural Rightsrights inherent in human beings, not dependent on governments, which include life, liberty, and property. The concept of natural rights was central to English philosopher John Locke's theories about government, and was widely accepted among America's Founding fathers.
Consent of the Governedaccording to John Locke, the require basis for government
Limited Governmentthe idea that certain things are out of bounds for government because of the natural rights of citizens
Articles of Confederationthe first constitution of the united states, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. The Articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures
Shay's Rebelliona series of attacks on courthouses by a small band of farmers led by revolutionary war Captain Daniel Shays to block foreclosure proceedings
Factionsinterest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Fed. No. 10. Todays parties or interest groups are what Madison had in mind when he warned of the instability in government caused by factions.
New Jersey Planthe proposal at the continental convention that called for equal representation of each state in congress regardless of the state's population
Virginia Planthe proposal at the constitutional convention that called for representation of each state in congress in proportion to that states share of the u.s population
Connecticut Compromisethe compromise reached at the constitutional convention that established two houses of congress: the house of representatives, in which representation is based on a state's share of the U.S. population, and the Senate, in which each state has two representatives.
Writ of Habeas Corpusa court order requiring jailers to explain to a judge why they are holding a person custody
Necessary & Proper Clausethe final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers
Full Faith & Credit Clausea clause in Article IV, Section I, of the constitution requiring each state to recognize the official documents and civil judgments rendered by the courts of other states
Privileges Clausea clause in Article VI, section 2, of the constitution according citizens of each state most of the privileges of citizens in other states
Commerce Clause
Supremacy Clauseartivle VI of the constitution, which makes the constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits
Separation of Powersan important part of the Madisonian model that requires each of the three branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - to be relatively independent of the others so that one cannot control the others. Power is shared among these three institutions
Checks and Balancesan important part of the Madisonian model designed to limit governments power by requiring that power be balanced among the different governmental institutions. These institutions continually check on another's activities. This system reflects Madison's goal of setting power against power.
RepublicA form of government that derives its power, directly or indirectly, from the people. Those chosen to govern are accountable to those whom they govern. In contrast to a direct democracy, in which people themselves make laws, in a republic the people select representatives who make the laws.
Federalistssupporters of the U.S. constitution at the time the states were contemplating its adoption.
Anti-Federalistsopponents of the american constitution at the time when the states were contemplating its adoption. they argues that the constitution was a class-based document, that it would erode fundamental liberties, and tat it would weaken the power of the states.
Federalist Papersa collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the constitution in detail. collectively, these papers are second only to the u.s constitution in characterizing the framers' intents.
Federalist #10federalist paper written by madison to talk about how factions are a bad thing
Federalist #51federalist paper written by madison to talk about the different branches of government and checks and balances
Bill of Rightsthe first ten amendments to the U.S. constitution, drafted in response to some of the anti-federalist concerns. these amendments define such basic liberties as freedom of religion, speech, and press and offer protections against searches by the police and being held without talking to ta lawyer
Amendments 1-10--
Federalisma way of organizing a nation so that two levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. it is a system of shared power between units of government.
McCulloch v. Marylanda 1819 supreme court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments. in deciding this case, chief justice john marshall and his colleagues held that congress had certain implied powers in addition to the enumerated powers found in the constitution
Enumerated Powerspowers of the federal government that are specifically addressed in the constitution; for congress, these powers are listed in article I, section 8, and include the power to coin money, regulate its value, and impose taxes.
Implied Powerspowers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the constitution. the constitution states that congress has the power to "make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in article 1.
Reserved Powersa political power that a constitution reserves exclusively to the jurisdiction of a particular political authority
Concurrent Powers
Gibbons v. Ogdena landmark case decided in 1824 in which the supreme court interpreted very broadly the clause in article I, section 8, of the constitution giving congress the power to regulate the interstate commerce, encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity.
Dual Federalisma system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
Cooperative Federalisma system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. they may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
New Federalisma plan, announced in 1969, to turn over the control of some federal programs to state and local governments and institute block grants, revenue sharing, ect.
Grants-in-Aida subsidy furnished by a central government to a local one to help finance a public project
Categorical Grantsfederal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or "categories" of state and local spending. they come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions.
Block Grantsfederal grants given more or less automatically to the states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services
Unfunded Mandateswhen the federal government requires state and local action but does not provide the funds to pay for the action