Understanding Self

baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-09-17 13:57


Question Answer
Philosophyis replete with men and women who inquired into the fundamental nature of the self
SocratesEvery mans is composed of body and soul
SocratesEvery human is dualistic
SocratesIndividuals have an imperfect, impermanent aspect to him and the body while maintaining that there is also a soul that is perfect and permanent
Socratesfirst philosopher who ever engaged in a systematic questioning about the self
PlatoSupported the idea that man is a dual nature but added three components of the soul
(1) Rational Soul, (2) Spirited Soul, (3) Appetitive SoulThree components of soul said by Plato
BodySoma means
SoulPseuche means
Augustineagreed that man is of bifurcated nature
AugustineThe body is bound to die on earth and the soul is to anticipate living eternally in a realm of spiritual bliss in communion with God
Aquinassaid that man is composed of two parts which are matter and form
Aquinassaid that the soul is what animates the body; it is what makes us human
Rene Descartessaid that the body is nothing else but a machine that is attached to the mind
Rene Descartesconceived of the human personas having a body and a mind
David Humesaid that the self is not an entity over and beyond the physical body
David HumeMen can only attain knowledge by experiencing
David Humedefined self as "a bundle or collection of different perceptions, which succeed each other with an inconceivable rapidly, and are in a perpetual flux and movement
Immanuel Kantthinks that the things men perceive around them are not just randomly infused into the human person without an organizing principle that regulates the relationship of all these impressions
Immanuel KantSelf is not just what gives one a personality. it is also the seat of knowledge acquisition for all human person
Immanuel Kantthere is necessarily a mind that organizes the impressions that men get from the external world
Gilbert Ryle"self is not an entity one can locate and analyze
Gilbert Ryledenies concept of an internal, non-physical self
Gilbert RyleBehaviour that manifest in his day-in-day life
Gilbert Rylesuggests that 'self' is not an entity one can locate and analyze but simply the convenient name that people use to refer to all the behaviours that people make
Merleau-Pontysays that the mind and body are so intertwined that they cannot be separated
Merleau-Pontythe living body, his thoughts, emotions, and experiences are all one


Question Answer
(1) Separate, (2) Self contained, (3) Independent, (4) Consistent, (5) Unitary, (6) PrivateThe self is commonly defined by 6 characteristics
SeparateMeans that self is distinct from other selves
Self contained & Independentbecause in it self, it can coexist
ConsistencyMeans that self has a particular trait
UnitaryCenter of all experiences and thoughts that rub through a certain person
PrivateMeans that each person sort out info, feelings, emotions that processes within self
Marcel MaussThe Self and Culture has two faces which are the Moi and Personne
Moi and MaussTwo faces
MoiRefers to a person's sense of of who he is
PersonneComposed of social concepts of what it means to be who he is
LanguageAn interesting aspect of social constructivism
LanguageIt is a salient part of culture and has tremendous effect in our crafting of the self
the self will have to adjust according to its exposureIf a self is born into a particular society or culture, __________
Mead & Vygotskythe way that human persons develop is with the use of language acquisition and interaction with others
Mead & VygotskyTreat human mind as something that is made, constituted through language as experienced in the external world and as encountered in dialog with others
Genderone of those loci in self that is subject to alteration, change and development
GenderHas to be personally discovered and altered and not dictate by culture and society
Gendered selfis shaped within a particular context of time and space


Question Answer
Selfis the sense of personal identity and who we are as individuals
William James (1890)one of the earliest psychologists to study the self and conceptualized the self as having two aspects which are I & Me
(1) I & (2) MeTwo aspects of self by William James
I (William James)is the thinking, acting, and feeling self
Me (William James)is the physical characteristics and psychological capabilities that makes who you are
Carl RogersHis theory of personality is same with William James
I (Carl Rogers)the one who acts and decides
Me (Carl Rogers)is what you think and feel about yourself as an object
Identitycomposed of personal characteristics, social roles and responsibilities
Self Conceptwhat basically comes to your mind when you are asked who you are
Self-schemaOrganized system or collection of knowledge about who we are
Mental constructs created and recreated in memoryTheories generally see the self and identity as _________
Sigmund Freudmost influential psychologist who followed the trend of thought, looking deeper into the mind of the person to theorize about self, identity, self concept and in turn, one's personality
Sigmund Freudsaw the self, its mental processes and one's behavior as the results of the interaction between Id, Ego and Superego
G. H. Meadargued that the self is created and developed thru human interaction
(1) We do not create ourselves out of nothing, (2) We need others to affirm and reinforce who we think we are, (3) What we think is important to us may also have been influenced by what is important in our social or historical context3 reasons why self and identity are social products
Social Interaction & Group affiliationvital factors in creating our self-concept especially in the aspect of providing us with out social identity or our perception of who we are based on our membership to certain groups
Self-awarenesstimes when we are aware of our self-concepts
Carver and ScheierPeople who identified two types of self that we can be aware of
(1) Private self & (2) Public self2 types of self that we can be aware of
Private selfYour internal standards and private thoughts and feelings
Public SelfYour public image commonly geared toward having a good presentation of yourself to others
(1) Actual self, (2) Ideal self, (3) Ought self3 other self-schema presented by Self awareness
Actual selfWho you are at the moment
Ideal selfWho you like to be
Ought selfWho you think you should be
Group Identity & Self awarenessDefined as our own positive or negative perception or evaluation of ourselves
Social Comparison TheoryWe learn about ourselves, the appropriateness of our behaviors as well as our social status by comparing aspects of ourselves with other people
Downward Social Comparisonmore common type of comparing ourselves with others
Downward Social ComparisonCreate a positive self-concept by comparing ourselves with those who are worse than us
Upward Social ComparisonComparing ourselves with those who are better than us
Self evaluation maintenance theorystates that we can feel threatened when someone out-performs us
NarcissismA trait characterized by overly high self-esteem, self-admiration and self-centeredness
Baumeister, Smart & BodenConcluded that programs, activities and parenting styles to boost self-esteem should only be for rewarding good behavior and other achievements and not for the purpose of merely trying to make children feel better about themselves or to appease them when they get angry or sad