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Question Answer
Selfis the sense of personal identity and who we are as individuals
William James (1890)one of the earliest psychologists to study the self and conceptualized the self as having two aspects which are I & Me
(1) I & (2) MeTwo aspects of self by William James
I (William James)is the thinking, acting, and feeling self
Me (William James)is the physical characteristics and psychological capabilities that makes who you are
Carl RogersHis theory of personality is same with William James
I (Carl Rogers)the one who acts and decides
Me (Carl Rogers)is what you think and feel about yourself as an object
Identitycomposed of personal characteristics, social roles and responsibilities
Self Conceptwhat basically comes to your mind when you are asked who you are
Self-schemaOrganized system or collection of knowledge about who we are
Mental constructs created and recreated in memoryTheories generally see the self and identity as _________
Sigmund Freudmost influential psychologist who followed the trend of thought, looking deeper into the mind of the person to theorize about self, identity, self concept and in turn, one's personality
Sigmund Freudsaw the self, its mental processes and one's behavior as the results of the interaction between Id, Ego and Superego
G. H. Meadargued that the self is created and developed thru human interaction
(1) We do not create ourselves out of nothing, (2) We need others to affirm and reinforce who we think we are, (3) What we think is important to us may also have been influenced by what is important in our social or historical context3 reasons why self and identity are social products
Social Interaction & Group affiliationvital factors in creating our self-concept especially in the aspect of providing us with out social identity or our perception of who we are based on our membership to certain groups
Self-awarenesstimes when we are aware of our self-concepts
Carver and ScheierPeople who identified two types of self that we can be aware of
(1) Private self & (2) Public self2 types of self that we can be aware of
Private selfYour internal standards and private thoughts and feelings
Public SelfYour public image commonly geared toward having a good presentation of yourself to others
(1) Actual self, (2) Ideal self, (3) Ought self3 other self-schema presented by Self awareness
Actual selfWho you are at the moment
Ideal selfWho you like to be
Ought selfWho you think you should be
Group Identity & Self awarenessDefined as our own positive or negative perception or evaluation of ourselves
Social Comparison TheoryWe learn about ourselves, the appropriateness of our behaviors as well as our social status by comparing aspects of ourselves with other people
Downward Social Comparisonmore common type of comparing ourselves with others
Downward Social ComparisonCreate a positive self-concept by comparing ourselves with those who are worse than us
Upward Social ComparisonComparing ourselves with those who are better than us
Self evaluation maintenance theorystates that we can feel threatened when someone out-performs us
NarcissismA trait characterized by overly high self-esteem, self-admiration and self-centeredness
Baumeister, Smart & BodenConcluded that programs, activities and parenting styles to boost self-esteem should only be for rewarding good behavior and other achievements and not for the purpose of merely trying to make children feel better about themselves or to appease them when they get angry or sad


Question Answer
ConfucianismCode of ethical conduct
ConfucianismHow one should properly act according to their relationship with other people
Self-cultivationthe ultimate process of life
Chun-tzuman of virtue or noble character
Subdued selfThe cultivated self in Confucianism
Subdued selfWherein personal needs are repressed for the good of may, making Confucian society also hierarchal for the purpose of maintaining balance & order in society
Taoismis living the way of Tao or the universe
TaoismRejects having one definition of what Tao is
TaoismOne can only stated clues of what It is as they adopt a free-flowing, relative, unitary view of everything
TaoismRejects hierarchy and strictness brought up by Confucianism
TaoismPrefer simple lifestyle and teaching how to attain that life
BuddhismThe self is seen as an illusion, born out of ignorance, of trying to hold & control things or human-centered needs
BuddhismQuest to forget about self and to renounce the self which is the cause of all suffering and attain Nirvana
BuddhismThe self is taken out of the whole picture
Western perspectivedoes not discount the role of environment and society in the formation of self
Western perspectiveLooks at the world in dualities wherein you are distinct from the other person
Eastern perspectivesees other person as part of yourself
Western cultureindividualistic culture
Asian cultureCollectivistic culture


Question Answer
Gonadsreproductive glands that produce gametes; testis ovary
GonadsBegin to form about 8th week of embryonic development
Indifferent stagewhen embryonic reproductive structure of males and females are alike
Presence of testosteroneThe formation of male or female structure depend on this
Pseudohermaphroditesare formed when the embryo has ovaries but may develop male accessory ducts & glands, as well as male reproductive organ & empty scrotum
True hermaphroditesare individuals who possess both ovarian & testicular tissues
Pubertyperiod of life generally between 10 and 15 years old
PubertyWhen the reproductive organs grow to their adult size and become functional under the influence of rising levels of gonadal hormones
Menarcheis the first menstrual period of females
MenarcheHappens two years after the start of puberty
Hormonesplay an important role in the regulation of ovulation & fertility of females
Vaginal infectionsusually more common in young and elderly women and in those whose resistance to diseases is low
Vaginal infectionsInfections include: Escherichia coli


Question Answer
(1) Prostatitis, (2) Urethritis, (3) Epididymitis3 MOST COMMON MALE INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS
Orchiditisinflammation of testes
Neoplasmsare a major threat to reproductive organs
Menopausewhen women no longer experience menstruation
Erogenous Zonesrefer to parts of the body that are primarily receptive and increase sexual arousal when touched in sexual manner
Mouth, breasts, genitals & anusWhat are the erogenous zones?
Human sexual behaviordefined as any activity that includes sexual arousal
(1) Inherited sexual patterns, (2) Degree of restraint exerted on individual2 MAJOR FACTORS THAT DETERMINE HUMAN SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
(1) Solitary Behavior, (2) Sociosexual Behavior2 TYPES OF BEHAVIOR
Heterosexual behavioris the greatest amount of sociosexual behavior that occurs between only one male & female
Self-gratificationmeans self-stimulation that leads to sexual arousal and generally, sexual climax
Pettingmay be done as form of expression of affection and source of pleasure, preliminary to coitus
Coitusthe insertion of male reproductive organ to female reproductive organ
(1) Excitement Phase, (2) Plateau Phase, (3) Sexual Climax, (4) Resolution Phase4 PHYSIOLOGY OF HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE


Question Answer
Excitement Phasecaused by an increase in pulse & blood pressure
Excitement PhaseSudden rise in blood supply to the surface of the body resulting in increased skin temperature, flushing and swelling of all distensible body parts
Plateau phaseGenerally of brief duration. If stimulation is continues, orgasm usually occurs
Sexual Climaxmarked by feeling of abrupt, intense pleasure
Sexual ClimaxRapid increase in pulse rate and blood pressure
Sexual ClimaxSpasms of the pelvic muscles causing contractions of female reproductive organ and ejaculation by male
Sexual ClimaxCharacterized by involuntary vocalizations
Resolution PhaseLast stage that refers to the return to a normal or subnormal physiologic state.
Autonomic Systeminvolved in controlling the involuntary process


Question Answer
Sexual responseis dependent on the activity of the nervous system
Hypothalamus & Limbic system are parts of the brain believed to be responsible for regulating the sexual response
(1) Mounting Behavior (Masculine), (2) Mounted Behavior (Feminine)2 SEXUAL RESPONSE PATTERNS
(1) Physiological, (2) Psychological, (3) Social3 CLASSIFICATIONS OF SEXUAL PROBLEMS
PsychologicalUsually cause by socially induced inhibitions, maladaptive attitudes, ignorance and sexual myths held by society
Premature emission of semenis the natural result of excessive tension in a male who has been sexually deprived
Erectile impotenceis almost always a psychological origin in males under 40
Ejaculatory Impotenceresults from inability to ejaculate in coitus
Ejaculatory ImpotenceAssociated with ideas of contamination or with memories of traumatic experiencess
Vaginismusstrong spasm of the pelvic musculature constricting the female reproductive organ so that penetration is painful or impossible
VaginismusCan be due to anti-sexual conditioning or psychological trauma that serves as an unconscious defense against coitus


Question Answer
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)infections from an infected person to an uninfected person through sexual contact
AIDSthe leading STDs
AIDSCaused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Chancroidcaused by infection with the bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US
Herpes Simplex Virusamong the most prevalent of sexually transmitted infections
Trichomonas Vaginalisis a common sexually transmitted protozoal infection associated with adverse health outcomes such as preterm birth and symptomatic vaginitis
NATURAL METHOD OF CONTRACEPTIONThe natural family planning methods do not involve any chemical or foreign body introduction into the human body


Question Answer
Abstinenceinvolves refraining from sexual intercourse
AbstinenceMost effective natural birth control method with ideally 0% fail rate
Calendar Methodalso called rhythm method
Calendar MethodEntails withholding from coitus during the days that the woman is fertile
Basal Body temperatureindicates the woman’s temperature at rest
Cervical Mucus MethodThe change in cervical mucus during ovulation is the basis for this method
Symptothermal MethodCombination of BBT method and the cervical mucus method
Ovulation detectionuses and over the counter kit that requires the urine sample of the woman
Ovulation detectionThe kit can predict ovulation through the surge of luteinizing hormone that happens 12-24 hours before ovulation
Coitus Interruptusone of the oldest methods that prevents conception
Coitus InterruptusWhen couple goes on with coitus but the man withdraws the moment he ejaculates to emit spermatozoa outside the female reproductive organ


Question Answer
Oral contraceptivesContain synthetic estrogen and progesterone
Oral contraceptivesSuggested that the woman takes first pill on the first Sunday after the beginning of menstrual flow
Estrogensuppresses the Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Transdermal Patchcontains both estrogen and progesterone
Transdermal PatchApply one patch every week for four weeks in: Upper Outer Arm, Abdomen or Buttocks
Vaginal Ringreleases a combination of estrogen and progesterone and it surrounds the cervix
Vaginal RingThis silicon ring is inserted into the female reproductive organ and remains there for three weeks
Subdermal Implantstwo rod-like implants inserted under the skin of the female during her menses or on the 7th day of menstruation
Hormonal Injectionscontain medroxyprogesterone and is usually given once every 12 weeks intramuscularly
Hormonal InjectionsThis injection causes changes in the endometrium and cervical mucus and can help prevent ovulation
Intrauterine deviceis a small t-shaped object containing progesterone that is inserted into the uterus via the female reproductive organ
Intrauterine devicePrevents fertilization by creating local sterile inflammatory condition to prevent implantation of zygote
Chemical barriersare used to cause the death of sperms before they can enter the cervix and to lower the pH level of the female reproductive organ
DiaphragmCircular, rubber disk that fits the cervix and should be placed before coitus
DiaphragmInhibiting the entrance of the sperm and works better when used with a spermicide
Cervical capmade of soft rubber and fitted on the rim of the cervix
Male condomslatex or synthetic rubber sheath that is placed on the erect male reproductive organ before penetration into the female reproductive organ to trap the sperm during ejaculation
Female condomsmade of latex rubber sheaths that are pre-lubricated with spermicide
Female condomsUsed to prevent fertilization of egg by sperm cells
Vasectomysmall incision made on each side of the scrotum
Tubal Ligationprocedure is done through a small incision under the woman’s umbilicus that targets the fallopian tube for cutting to inhibit passage of sperm to ova