U.S. History MARYVILLE Test 2

rosesarered's version from 2015-10-30 02:54


Question Answer
Eli WhitneyAmerican inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin (one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution)
Reasons for War of 1812Impressment, British invasion of U.S. waters, British violation of neutral rights, economic recession in South and West, thought British wanted to elim. U.S. as trade partner
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787Banned slavery from western territories, north of Ohio River
Impressmentthe act in which men are captured and forced into naval service
Andrew JacksonDemocrat: Believed majority should govern; held elite in contempt; anti-U.S. bank; no fed. money for political improvements; no reg. of economy
Thomas JeffersonPresident in 1800 (strict constructionist): purchased Louisiana Territory in 1803; reduced national debt by a third, eliminated whiskey tax, defeated Barbary pirates; public good against private interest, "renaissance man", President of American Philosophical Society, government in check and be servant of people
The Trail of TearsIn 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and move to present-day Oklahoma
Indian Removal Act of 1830Passed by Congress on May 28, 1830, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson; authorized the president to negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to fed. territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands
Nat Turner 1831Led by Nat Turner during August 1831, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55 to 65 people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising, in Virginia.
The Tariff of 1828Formed by Daniel Webster; benefited western farmers & New England manufacturers, hurt South; raised price on imported goods
Erie Canal 1817-1825linked Buffalo, NY to the Great Lakes to Ohio Valley to Hudson River to NY City to Atlantic
Lowell MillsFrancis Cabot Lowell est. Town of Lowell & used Blackstone River to power textile mills (looms and spinning frames); hired young, single girls
Novus Ordo Secloruma new order of the ages
Whigsin favor of U.S. bank; opposed Jackson; usually N. farmers, industrial craftsmen, mid. class; encouraged church atten.; old Federalists: John Q. Adams, Henry Clay
Shay's Rebellion 17861786 & 1787: led by Daniel Shays, armed uprising in MA by angry farmers with debts against state and local enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debts(imprisonment) - lack of response to uprising led to reevaluating Articles of Confederation and the Constitutional Convention
Federalistsbelieved government should be run by wealthy/educated, believed in strong in central government, consent of the governed, had little faith in ordinary people - Robert Morris, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, George Washington
about Articles of Confederation1777 - decentralized form of government, states have one vote each, legislation by majority, no federal power to tax, unanimous amendments, each state was sovereign over the federal government
Whiskey Rebellion 1794caused by lack of federal courts, absentee landlords, lack of protection from Indians, high excise tax on whiskey, and lack of access to Michigan River - Washington crushed the group, it was the first test of the new government
Cottonbegan to be less popular when taxes on it went higher and slavery was less popular and industrialism was more prevalent
The Missouri Compromise1819; petitioned fed. gov. for MO statehood; Henry Clay proposed compromise: MO (slave) & Maine (free); no slave state above 36'30" in LA purchase
The Treaty of GhentEnded War of 1812 (Dec. 24, 1814); restored state of affairs as before war
Alexander Hamiltonkilled in duel by Aaron Burr, death hurt U.S. because he was economic leader; leader of Federalist party, helped form U.S. bank
The Alien & Sedition Acts1798 (aimed at France) signed into law by John Adams; four bills passed by the Federalists
The Election of 1800John Adams (Federalist) lost & Thomas Jefferson (Dem. Rep.) was deadlocked w. Aaron Burr (Dem. Rep.) ; decision went to House of Rep. & Hamilton intervened to make Jefferson president
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions(anonymous) state legislatures retain right to judge the constitutionality of federal actions; states could nullify objectionable federal laws
Aaron Burrdefamed by Hamilton, challenged Hamilton to duel and killed him on July 11, 1804; most famous U.S. duel
William Clarkexpedition for Northwest Passage, cartographer, assumed Rockies were similar to Appalachians
Meriwether Lewisexpedition, natural scientist, departed from St. Louis in May 1804
Henry ClayCongressman from KY & Speaker of the House proposed Missouri Compromise; promoted modernization
Bank of the USAProvided safe place for federal deposits, inexpensive loans to government, issued paper notes, regulated state banks, provided cash for economic depression; created by Alexander Hamilton
McCulloch vs Maryland1819 - debated whether MD had power to tax national corp. (Bank of U.S.); ended by establishing supremacy of fed. over state
The spoils systememployed by Andrew Jackson; practice in which a president granted positions to friends and supporters
John C. CalhounSC Senator who supported slavery; held slave labor as similar to wage labor; worst opponent of Clay
William Lloyd Garrisonwrote pamphlet called the Liberator which preached radical, antislavery message - Immediate Emancipation
Frederick Douglasformer slave; published North Star magazine promoting slave abolition
Embargo Act of 1807Passed by Jefferson to punish British suppression of U.S. trade, ships, and sailors; prohibited foreign trips and exports; ended up hurting U.S. most
Louisiana Purchase of 1803Napoleon sold LA to U.S. for $15 mil.; Senate ratified purchase; Jefferson sent Lewis & Clark to explore
Angela & Sarah Grimkeabolitionists
Seneca Falls, NY/Lucretia MottQuaker who advocated abolition, Indian rights, land reform, and equality of the sexes - held first women's rights convention in the U.S. in Seneca Falls, NY in July 1848
Brook FarmUtopian community that ultimately failed
Temperancemovement to stop alcohol abuse (avg. man drank 7 gal./year in 1830); American Temperance Society promoted abstinence
problems with Articles of Confederationunable to pay debts, enforce peace treaty terms, resolve state disputes, tax, exert executive, have unified federal courts
Anti-Federalistssuspicious of strong central power, believed in Utopian yeoman farmer, suspicious of big business, helped to guarantee a Bill of Rights - Thomas Jefferson
Alien Enemies Actprevented wartime espionage
Alien Friends ActPresident may expel foreign residents whose activities he considers dangerous.
Naturalization ActImmigrants must live in the USA (within one state) 14 years to be eligible for citizenship
Sedition Actforbade anyone to oppose any measure of the USA, no criticism
War of 1812British navy blocked Atlantic coast, U.S. unsuccessfully attacked Canada, U.S. lost battle Detroit and Montreal, British won D.C. and burnt White House
Results of War of 1812eliminated Federalist Party, introduced Republican Party, proved U.S. strength and strength of amateur soldiers, Francis Scott wrote "Star-Spangled Banner"

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