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Typography Quiz CH 4 & 5

rosesarered's version from 2018-10-01 20:25

Section: CH 4

Question Answer
Bitmapsprearranged arrays of dots
Bitmapped fontsfonts made from bitmap
Outline fontssolution to the problem of bitmap fonts (to store descriptions of characters as a set of outline drawings) store character images as outlines described mathematically as a series of curves and straight line segments
Vectorsline segments
Vector fontsfonts based from vectors
The most important constituents of a font arethe character outlines themselves
Character setentire collection of characters in a font - are standardized to a degree
Alphanumeric fontsones used for text containing letters and numerals
PostScript fonts contain256 characters
Formattwo meanings #1. Refers to the platform for which the font was designed (file formats) #2. Reflects how the typographic information itself is designed and organized (font formats: PostScript, TrueType, and OpenType)
A single OpenType font file will work oneither a Mac or PC
Apple or Microsoft collaborated to create a new font formatTrueType - this new format enabled both companies to build outline font imaging capabilities into their respective operating systems without being beholden to Adobe
PostScript font formatused a numbering system to identify characters based on a single byte of computer data, yielding a max of 256 distinct numbers
Single-byte fontsfonts based on 1 byte
TrueTypeintroduced a 2-byte numbering system, which allowed for character sets of over 65,000 unique ID numbers
OpenTypea hybrid font format created by Adobe and Microsoft - an OpenType font is a TrueType font with a “pocket” for PostScript data
Hexadecimal formatuses numerals 0-9 to express numbers and the letters A-F (ID numbers in Unicode are written in this format) - the value expressed as 0010 is the equivalent of 16 in our normal base-10 system
Computers identify characters bynumbers and all systems agree on the meanings of 0-127, the ASCII character set
Unicoderecognizes that 1 character may have several forms, each form represented by a glyph
Glyph palettescomputer tool used for browsing fonts (a given font’s glyph set can be larger than its characters set)
Before Unicode and OpenType came alongfonts were restricted to 256 characters and Latin-based alphanumeric fonts all contained a standard character set - the solution was to create companion fonts for certain typefaces, fonts that contained alternate characters
Expert sets or alternate fontsthe companion fonts, they include: old style numerals, ligatures, and swash characters
The .otf filename extension simply meansthat it is an OpenType font file that can be used on either a Mac or a PC. TrueType fonts carry the filename extension .ttf and a TrueType font file that will work on either platform gets the .otf extension
Font managerutility program that helps organize and manage the huge numbers of fonts that can come to populate your computer
Font-editing programsare the tools that type designers use to create fonts from scatch

Section: CH 5

Question Answer
The standard typeface for running text isa seriffed roman
The two most commonly available typefaceswere variations of Times Roman (a seriffed newspaper face) and Helvetica (the ubiquitous sans serif) - every printer, manufacturer, and digital foundry had versions of them and nothing else
A typeface of “standard” width hasa lowercase alphabet that’s 13 ems long
Popular text facesare elegant but conservative, generous but not tall x-heights
Most bolder and lighter versions of typefaces areused for display purposes and not in running text
Heading and subheadings are often set in boldSuch emphasis could also be achieved with a change of type size alone, but some bold type on a page adds graphic diversity and bold type does the job of visual punctuation more effectively than does a mere change of point size.
Italics are set for1. Book titles 2. Names of works of art, including musical compositions 3. Names of films, plays and TV shows 4. Titles of periodicals 5. Definitions in a sentence 6. Single letters referred to as letters -- 7. Terms introduced in a manuscript for the first time and technical terms 8. Proper names of ships and aircraft 9. Genera and species 10. Foreign words and phrases 11. Punctuation after words set in italics
Extended or expanded facesare rarely used in any other than display roles
In general, seriffed facesdo not take well to being redesigned in condensed form
Altering the width of text can be helpful with display text butshould be kept to minor adjustments, less than 10%
Changing the set width of characters doesn’t create a new typefaceit just distorts the existing one
Sans serifis the king of display types
Because type set in a large point size appears looser than type in text sizesthe tracking (letter spacing) is usually tightened
Decorative typeis usually advertising type - it goes in and out of style quickly - once a decorative type becomes popular and familiar, it’s not doing its job anymore
Unless color contrast is kept highthe type is going to have to be larger and bolder to compensate for color to be clear to read
The slightest misregistrationwill cause the type to appear out of focus, fuzzy, and even multicolored
Reversing type in lighter versions letsblack creep into the white type (underexposing type)
Low contrast typefacesfare better than high contrast ones

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