# Typography Quiz CH 2

version from 2018-09-17 14:32

## Section

Fixed or absolute measurementsmeasurements in feet, inches, and centimeters you use everyay - type has its own equivalents, pica and point
American pointU.S. Type Founders Association decided that a point should equal exactly 0.0138 inch (or 1/72 inch) which is a PostScript point
Picaunit of type size, comprised of 12 points (1 pica = 12 pts), used for measuring page dimensions and elements, smaller distances are measured in points, such as paragraph indents
Line spacing or leadingdistance between two lines of type, expressed in points
Type sizeis measured in points, point size and type size are synonymous
Point sizeheight of bounding box surrounding each letter
Relative unitshave no fixed value in absolute units such as picas or inches
Trim sizesize of page after it’s cut down to final size
Emfundamental relative unit of typography, it’s the same size as the type being set (11pt type, em = 11) (not the width of an M), the widths of characters are defined in terms of the em square rather than by a number of absolute units such as points, 1,000 units per em in digital fonts
Kerningthe adjustment of spacing between letter pairs to correct problems arising from shapes of letters
En space½ em space
Thin space½ en space, ¼ em space
Hair space½ hair space, ¼ en space, ⅛ em space
Figure spacewidth of numerals (varies from typeface to typeface)
Fixed spacesem, en, thin, hair, and figure spaces because their widths are invariable unless type size changes
Word spaces or space banddifferent for each font, space between words (when changed, it’s called justification)
Didotsystem the French invented to measure manipulated type
Didot point12 didot points = 1 cicero (15 ciceros = 16 picas)
Typefacean alphabet, a collection of characters (letters, numbers, symbols, etc), the font is the cookie cutter, the typeface is the cookie
Fontdescription of a typeface, the font is the cookie cutter, the typeface is the cookie
Baselineline on which all letters sit, fundamental reference
Leading or line spacemeasured in points from baseline to baseline
X-heightheight of a typeface’s lowercase letters
Mean lineline drawn at x-height
Stressvariation in thickness of strokes, are hallmarks of type styles
Strokeswidths of strokes vary according to either upward or downward movement of the pen
Serifsfinishing flourishes at the end of main strokes
Sans serifwithout serifs
Serifs and sans serifsare important visual aids that help the eye differentiate characters and make text more legible
12 points type size w. 14 points leading= 12/14

False decimal point is often used in pica and point measurements
6p11 = 6.11 = 6 picas 11 points
6p12 = 7p
24 picas can be written as 24= (= is symbol for picas)
The letterforms of typefaces and the way we talk about them are influenced by chiseled letters and calligraphy
The em square is the grid upon which all characters in a font are created, some (but not many) characters extend outside the em square