Typography Quiz CH 14-15

rosesarered's version from 2018-11-12 17:36


Question Answer
Chapter headings are often set inall caps or in small caps
When chapter headings are set in upper- and lowercase,they are normally set up in up style, or headline style; that is, with ever major word capitalized.
In non-English settings, the down style, or sentence style (initial cap only),is more common
In titles and major headings of all kinds (including newspaper headlines)hyphenation should be avoided.
When possible, lines should be rewrapped toprevent even hard hyphens from appearing at line’s end
Subheads have two rolesto geographically separate sections of text and to identify the relative significance of the text they introduce. Their content is a separate issue. Usually three levels of subheadings in any work are sufficient. Beyond this, the reader is being asked to bear too much of the burden of keeping the structure of the document straight.
Level-C subheads aresometimes set run in to the text instead of on their own line.
Run-in subheads risk being taken as part of the text rather than a division marker, sothey have to be emphatically differentiated from the text that follows. They should be separated from the text by at least an em space.
A level-A subhead is often set flush left, andthe paragraph that follows it is set to match, without a first-line indent.
Level-B and level-C subheads may or may not follow this precedent, andthese lesser subheads are often set with indents to match the first-line indents of the text below them
Centered subheads generally look better over paragraphs without first-line indents, becauseindents, unless they’re very small, tend to make a centered head appear to be pulled off-center
Cut-in subheadsare nestled into an indent in mid-paragraph
Passages of quoted text (more than a few typeset lines long) set amid longer text are calledextracts.
There are two traditional ways of setting extracts.One is set them 1 point smaller than surrounding text and to the full measure. The other is to set them at the same point size as the text but to indent them from both right and left
Outlines typically use alphabetic or numeric indicators to identify topics or headings.These may include Roman numerals, capital letters, Arabic numerals, lowercase letters, and lowercase Roman numerals
Turnover lines(the second and following lines of a text entry that wraps) will align flush left under the first. (These lines are often assigned a hanging indent)
A table of contents (TOC)is an outline representation of a book
To draw a visual link between the two in these cases,TOCs customarily employ leaders
Leadera series of characters, usually periods, that give the eye a path to follow from text to page number
A standard table of contents layoutplaces all the folios (page numbers) flush right and connects them to their section names by leaders
Folios must be positioned on the page wherethe reader can find them easily
The most common placement for folios isnear the top outside corner of the page (away from the binding).
Dropped folioswhen folios are positioned in the bottom outside corner
Even when folios are positioned at the top of the page, they are typicallydropped to the bottom of chapter-opening pages to get them out of the way of the display type. In some cases they are omitted entirely
The point size of the folio isthe same size as the text or a point size larger
Running heads generally appear in pairs,with the one on the left page of a spread being the more general, and the one on the right more specific
A running head on the verso (left) pages andthe book’s title on the recto (right) pages.
More useful, perhaps (except in novels with simple numbered chapters), isto have the book title on the left and the chapter title on the right
Running heads are often associated with folios,with the folio following the running head (on recto pages) or preceding it (on verso pages) and separated from it by some fixed space (at least an em)
Jump lines short messages to the reader at the end of a column explaining where the rest of the text is, in cases where it isn’t obvious. They appear more often in newspapers and magazines
Jump pagethe site that the jump line points
The jump line includesthe folio of the jump page or some other explicit pointer, such as “back page”
Jump lines are usually setat least a point size smaller than the text, often in a contrasting typeface from the same family: italic, bold, or bold italic
End marksa common magazine device for indicating the end of an article (savvy readers are supposed to realize that an article is finished only when the end mark appears and to look for a continuation when they reach other columns or pages that end at a paragraph break
Captionevery piece of text beneath, above, or alongside a photo, illustrations or table
Legend or cutlinea longer description of the object
A legend is an explanation whilea caption is a label
Captions and legends arenormally set one or two point sizes smaller than the type used for the main text
Footnotesamplify on points in the text that have been positioned on the pages on which they’re cited
Endnotesthe current tendency is to gang all the notes together at the end of a chapter
Footnotes and endnotes are setat least two point sizes smaller than the main text
Footnotes indicated by numerals or symbols can also be set with hanging indents,leaving the numerals or symbols hanging to the left and all the footnote lines indented by the same amount
Reference marks or footnote symbolsappear as top-aligning characters in both the text and sometimes at the beginning of the footnote as well
Sequenceasterisk (*), dagger, double dagger, section mark, paragraph mark


Question Answer
Tables arrange data inhorizontal rows and vertical columns
Stub columnThe first column, when it contains identifiers that explain the nature of the information in the columns to the right of it
Tab entriesall the morsels of information in the table
Tab cyclethe whole series of tab entries in one row
Straddle headsheadings or tab entries that span two or more columns - often have subheads below them, one for each straddled column
Straddle entriesare typically used to indicate information that doesn’t conform to the general structure of the table
Full-page tables set sideways, or broadside, always have the stub column at the bottom of the page,regardless of whether they’re on recto or verso pages
Tables that have a horizontal top (or head) rule should also havea bottom (or tail) rule
The table’s caption (or title) appearsover the top rule and is set centered or flush left
The weights of rules in tables aren’t prescribed buttop and bottom rules are normally heavier (though they may only be half a point thick) than rules inside a table
A double rule is often usedin place of a heavier top rule
Scotch rulethe upper of the two rules is heavier
Often the width of the headings causes unbalanced column spacing.Breaking these into two or more lines may help. Multiple line headings look best when they bottom-align; that is, when their last lines share a common baseline
Do not hyphenatecolumn headings
Decimal-alignNumbers in columns generally decimal-align
When for one reason or another a tab entry has no data assigned to it, it’s usuallynot left blank
In text and numeric tables, the contemporary convention for handling void or missing entries isto insert an em dash