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Typography Quiz CH 13

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rosesarered's version from 2018-11-05 21:59

CHAPTER 13

Question Answer
There are many kinds of extra and alternate characters that can be designed into a typefacesmall capitals, extra ligatures, fractions, superior and inferior numerals plus punctuation for building fractions, ordinals, superior characters, swash characters, titling characters, contextual alternate characters, proportional oldstyle figures, tabular oldstyle figures, proportional lining figures, finials or terminal letters, and ornaments and fleurons
Small caps or small capitalsare scaled-down re-proportioned versions of full-size capital letters - slightly taller than lowercase letters - their principal role is to substitute for full-size capitals when the latter would look too large as among lowercase letters in normal text
Small caps generated by software will lookthin and light
In general, software-generated small caps should beavoided
Use small caps whena manuscript contains many acronyms
When using small caps alongside full-size caps,watch the spacing at the points of transition from one size to another
Small caps in text settings are mainly used assubstitutes for full-size caps in acronyms and initialisms such as- the abbreviation of historical designations (B.C., B.C.E., and A.D.)
It was once standard for the abbreviations for morning (antemeridian) and afternoon (postmeridian) to be set in small caps,but now they are set in lowercase
It’s traditional for the names of speakers in plays to be set in caps and small caps.Small caps are also useful for setting table headings as they take up less space than full-size capitals
Lining numerals or lining figuresthe numbers you see in most texts - all have the same height and all stand on the baseline and they all have the same width in tabular work
Old style numerals or lowercase or hanging figurescharacters have the same proportions and positioning as lining figures but they have descenders and ascenders - used because they blend into text better and have more interesting shapes
The modern bias against old-style numerals arises because they typically have unique character widths (they are proportional)so they don’t align in tidy columns in tables
Proportionalunique character widths in different characters
Ligaturestwo or more characters fused into one and set as a single unit with a single keystroke
Logotypesmultiple characters represented by a single glyph but have not been blended together and when printed they appear to be separate
The ligatures in most sans serifs are properly called logotypesas the characters that compose them are not merged
Diphthongsa kind of ligature that represents vowel forms combining two letters in both pronunciation and appearance - the most common are æ and œ
What are commonly referred to as ligatures, though, are strictly aesthetic forms.Most exist solely to avoid awkward collisions between characters
The most common ligatures involve the lettersf, l, and i. The most common of these ligatures are fi, ff, fl, ffi, and ffl.
Character pairs for which ligatures are less commonly used includect, st, and ft
Swash characters or flourished charactershave exaggerated calligraphic flourishes
Finials or terminal characterscertain lowercase swash characters intended to be used on the end of a word or line
Superior numerals have two principal rolesto designate footnotes and to represent the numerators of fractions
Fonts that contain full sets of superiors usually also includea full set of base-aligning inferior numerals of the same size as fraction denominators
English ordinals should be set as regular lowercase letters (5th, 23rd) not as superiors andsuperior characters for these roles are not to be found in most standard character sets
You can use your program’s superior/superscript controls to create the same effect, butagain, characters created this way will appear too light and would be better set in a semibold weight
Fractions come in two formsem (or diagonal) fractions and nut (or horizontal) fractions (nut being an expression for an en that when spoken is clearly differentiable from em)
Solidus fractionthird style of fraction is made with full size lining numerals
The fraction bar on the mac is atShift-Option-1
The fraction bar varies from the virgule (or solidus or slash) because it isa kerning character which means that numerators and denominators will automatically tuck themselves in close to it and because it base-aligns
Fractions are set closed upno space between the integer and the fraction that follows
Hyphenssymbolize a link
Hard hyphens used in compound modifiersmake one adjective out of two words
Hyphens alsotie prefixes to proper adjectives (pre-Victorian) or to clarify meanings (re-strain vs restrain)
An en dash also linksit’s commonly used with ranges of numbers and is used instead of a hyphen in compound modifiers when one of the elements consists of more than one word
An em dash separates, as do parentheses and colonsrepresents a break in the sense of a sentence.
Point of ellipsis, ellipsis points, suspension points, or marks of omissionused to indicate omissions - a three-dot ellipsis is used in mid-sentence (usually a quotation) to indicate that some words have been left out
Pi characters have many specific rolesin train schedules, maps, tv listings, the newspaper bridge and chess columns - used for highlighting items in a list (with a bullet)
Pi characters usually only come with the fontsSymbol, Apple Symbols, ITC Zapf Dingbats, Monotype Sorts, and Microsoft Wingdings and Webdings
Common pi characters includearrows, ornaments, and fleurons (flowerlike forms)
Primesused to indicate measurements including feet, inches, minutes, and seconds
Hyphens and en dashes are often incorrectly usedin place of the genuine minus sign. Likewise a lowercase x is no substitute for a multiplication sign
Most common european accentsacute (‘), grave (‘), tilde (~)
In every font is a dotless i, which is usedwith accents that would otherwise hit the character’s dot
The dotless i can come in handy ininformal advertising type where in situations of extremely tight leading or letter spacing the dot of the i can get in the way
Dropped initial capital or drop capmost popular form of initial capitals
Standing initial capital or standing cap or popcapoversized initial capital that sits on first baseline of paragraph
A normal problem with drop caps is thattheir shape can put them quite a distance from the rest of the word they start
To reduce the gap (or to allow larger drop caps)condensed faces are often used. Sans serif faces are commonly used for drop caps because of their relatively greater graphic impact
These capitals are normally reserved forchapter openings and they’re often seen at the start of magazine articles
Because of the large difference in size between a standing initial cap and the text that follows it,you’ll have to hand-kern the gap between the two
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