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Typography Quiz CH 10

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rosesarered's version from 2018-10-24 14:36

Section

Question Answer
Justificationthe process of filling lines of a given measure with type, which comprises of both characters and spaces
Hyphenationallows words to be broken into fragments that can better fill out the ends of lines, reducing the leftover space on those lines, assists in justification
The word justified isalso applied to text in which every line fills its measure completely, leaving perfectly straight, vertical margins at left and right
The tracking value you specify for the type willaffect the amount of space that each character will take up on the line
Tracking doesn’t affect the shapes of the characters, justthe amount of space they’re allotted
Line break pointsem dash, en dash, virgule (slash or solidus), or the most obvious in the word space and hyphen - text-composition software considers a number of characters’ legitimate places to end a line
Non-breaking spacea space that won’t break
Non-breaking hyphento prevent a hyphenated expression from breaking at the end of a line
Normalfor word spaces: the width of a word space as it’s defined with the font being used. for letter spaces: the distance between characters when their bounding boxes touch but don’t overlap
Hyphenation is a necessary evil becauseit impedes reading speed and comprehension. They aren’t pretty either
Page layout programs typically allow you tospecify a hyphenation zone in copy with a ragged right margin
The narrower the hyphenation zone, then,the more apt the program is hyphenate and the tighter the rag you’ll get. If your goal is to reduce the number of hyphenated lines, set the hyphenation zone wider.
Hard hyphenis keyed into manuscript and becomes a permanent part of the text stream
Discretionary or soft hyphenregular hyphen added by the program which is temporary and will disappear when no longer needed to divide a word
Non-breaking hyphenused when a normal hard hyphen would cause a line to break at an awkward place
The last word in a paragraph shouldnever be hyphenated
Rebreak the lines by hand(to force the text to rewrap) or adjust the tracking of the paragraph (to draw the word fragment up to the previous line or to push the whole word down to the last line)
The narrower the measure gets,the tougher it is to achieve even spacing and good type color
Even in ragged-margin copy, it’s good to allow word spaces to be flexed somewhat.This, along with hyphenation, enables you to create a tight rag, a margin that’s irregular but not too irregular
Wild ragmay be preferred in wide measures because a tight rag may look like sloppy justified text - the idea of a ragged margin is to add shape and graphic interest to type
Letterspacingdisplay type set with a grossly exaggerated letter spacing
Force-justifyuse the command to stretch word and letter spaces to whatever degree is needed to force text to fill the measure
In lines of only two words, you canuse the force-justify command as you would a quad-middle command
Flush spaceacts on last lines of paragraphs to push the text on either side of it out to the margins
You can letterspace multiple-word lines byusing fixed spaces (ems, ens, and thins) instead of word spaces
The problem with letterspacing is thatwhile all the letterspaces are stretched equally, you’ll need to tighten individual spaces to make it look right
Altering character widths
The most common composition problems arethe lines that can’t be set without violating the limits for what you’ve set for how much word and letter spaces can be altered
Sometimes you can cause a line to rewrap (break at a new point) bytightening or loosening its tracking
The most common cause of color contrasts among paragraphs isheavy-handed manual intervention
Widowslast lines of paragraphs if they are particularly short
Orphansshort segments of a paragraph (1 or 2 lines) that are stranded at the top or bottom of a column (a 3-line paragraph ending with a widow at the top of a new column may be an orphan)
Vertical justificationif you want columns to be the same length, do Command-B to adjust the leading in a column so the lines could spread to fit the column’s full depth
Riversoccur when word spaces stack one above the other in lines of type looking like rivers
The shapes created along a ragged margin column arenot random. You have control over them
A natural, random-looking rag isthe goal, even though it may not be naturally occuring
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