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Typography Quiz CH 1

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rosesarered's version from 2018-09-17 14:31

Section

Question Answer
Movable typeevery letter of a alphabet, every punctuation, every numeral and symbol is molded in high relief on ITS OWN METAL BLOCK, then it is set IN ROWS to form lines of text, then it gets inked - invented by the KOREANS who printed with reusable ceramic blocks - images were reversed, blocks made from lead alloy
Adding leadinserting thin metal strips between rows to add space (modernly called leading) which the distance between one row of type and another
Bounding boxspace each letter takes up on a page
Side bearingspace between character itself and edge of the bounding box
Type colorgraphically harmonious page, balance between black and white spaces, easy to read
Kerning charactercharacter that has parts that extend beyond its bounding box, created this way to maximize unsightly gaps between letters
Masterfor printing typefaces, a standard
Majusculescapital letters, put in the UPPER case
Minusculessmaller letters, put in the LOWER case
Escapementpaper moves from side to side (escapes) relative to print mechanism
Monospaced typeall characters have the same width, so typesetter machine doesn’t have to factor unique escapement for each letter - most common monospaced typeface is Courier - distorts characters but has practical use, for computer programs
Proportionally spaced typetype that copied historical, handset models
Lining figuresnumerals that all have the same width and height
Lowercase figuresold style numerals with very different widths and heights
Justificationdistribute words evenly on maximum length of line, operator decided whether to leave space at end of line or distribute space along line
Monotyperecorded keystrokes and spaces and how wide the characters were, for each character (one-by-one)
Linotypeinstead of casting letters one by one, it assembled molds for a whole line of type and cast them in one piece - line-o-type
Linecasting machinedirect input, not recorded for later, casting entire line of type
Fontmolding or casting
Matricesmolds
Letterpressprinting press, impression is created by inking a raised surface whose image is transferred under pressure to paper
Offset lithographyprocess where image of page is projected onto thin, flexible printing plate covered with a photographic emulsion, then the plate is developed like film, printing areas repel water but allows ink to adhere, plate is wet with water then ink - so image is “offset” printed onto a roller and the roller transfers the image in ink on the paper
Right readingread from right to left
Photographic vs electronic fontselectronic (mathematical formulas electronically generated images on the screen)
Imagesettersmachines adept at rendering artwork as type
WYSIWYGWhat You See Is What You Get - what you see previewed on the screen is exactly what would be printed out
Device independentPostScript was device independent, any computer program could express itself in PostScript code
Vector-based objectsobjects defined as outlines and paths that users could resize at will and image at any resolution
Bitmapimages drawn dot for dot - prior to PostScript
Raster image processor (RIP)interpreter of PostScript that took the form of a “black box”
Rastercomes from Latin word meaning “rake” - a rectangular pattern of parallel scanning lines followed by the electron beam on a television screen or computer monitor
Resolutionnumber of apparent dots a device can create per inch or centimeter, determined by fineness of beam and rate at which it can blink on and off as it travels
RasterizedRIP lays outline of characters over a grid and colors in the pixels
Bezier curvescurve used in computer graphics - still used today
Pixelsdots
Grid fittingprocess where character outlines are put on a grid and decisions are made about which pixels should be imaged, colored in
Hintsprogramming instructions that improve the clarity of characters
Typeset qualityabove 1000 dpi
Variable dot sizemodulating the power of the laser or intensity of the ink jet stream so printers can create smaller-than-normal dots
Anti-aliasingcommonly referred to as font smoothing, smoothing type images to create more legible screen types
memorize

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