Type 2 Diabetes Drugs

benryan95's version from 2016-03-23 11:45

Section 1

Question Answer
What class of drugs is metformin?Biguanide
Name 2 indications for metforminType 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome
When is metformin used in type 2 diabetes?Typically first line
How does metformin principally act?Decreases hyperglycaemia by reducing gluconeogenesis in the liver. Also seems to activate AMP kinase, increasing insulin sensitivity
When is metformin contraindicated?In people at risk of lactic acidosis (kidney disorders, liver disorders, lung disorders)
What is a common adverse effect of metformin?GI irritation (including diarrhoea, cramps, nausea, vomiting and increased flatulence).
What is a serious adverse effect of metformin?Lactic acidosis

Section 2

Question Answer
Give 3 examples of sulfonylureasgliclazide, glipizide, glimepiride
How do sulfonylureas act?Bind to ATP sensitive K+ channels on B cells of the pancreas, depolarising it leading to insulin release
What are significant adverse effects typical of sulfonylureas?Hypoglycaemia and abdominal upset
When can sulfonylureas be used?First line if metformin not tolerated/contraindicated, or in addition to other anti-type 2 diabetic drugs
What are DPP-4 inhibitors typically called?Gliptins
How do DPP-4 inhibitors act?Prevent breakdown of incretins GLP-1 and GIP, leading to less glucagon release, more insulin release and decreased blood sugar
When can DPP-4 inhibitors be used?First line if metformin not tolerated/contrainidicated, or in addition to other anti-type 2 diabetic drugs
What are some adverse effects of DPP-4 inhibitors?nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, heart failure, hypersensitivity, severe joint pain
What type of drug is pioglitazone?thiazolidinedione
How does pioglitazone act?Binds to nuclear receptors to increase insulin sensitivity through transcription
When is pioglitazone contraindicated?Heart failure!! acute liver disease and hypersensitivity
What are some adverse effects of pioglitazone?fluid retention, oedema, greater risk of fractures, low risk of hypoglycaemia however

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