ktepps's version from 2016-11-22 18:37

section 7


Question Answer
how are bone tumors classifiedby the matrix they produce
to DG OSA histologically what must be demonstratedthe presence of tumor associated osteiod
at the fancy fucking uc davis what do they look for in the bone stain to suggest OSA tumors?fresh biopsy tissue* from suspect OSA are generally stained for the presence of active alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme
Osteosarcomaa malignant mesenchymal neoplasm in which the tumor cells produce osteoid
where are osteosarcomas found ?away from elbow, towards the stifle, +distal tibia) More likely to be in the foreleg! Cats get it in the diphesis
describe the osteosarcoma lesionsgenerally aggressive lesions characterized by local bone loss (lysis) often with compensatory bone production
when do OSA metastasize and howearly on and through the pulmonary system, will skip regional lymph nodes
say where OSA occurs like 3 times outloudDO IT! (visual aid in chart page 4 packet 3
Increased serum levels of what was associated with a worse prognosisserum alkaline phosphatase
what is hypertrophic osteopathyproliferative bone lesion actually represents hyperplasia of the periosteum as a result of some kind of thoracic lesion (either a primary or metastatic tumor or even a thoracic infection)
Dog life expectancy palliative treatment only2-4 months
Dog life expectancy surgical amputation4-5 months
dog life expectancy surgical and chemo11 months
where does OSA occur in catslong bone diaphysis
Chondrosarcoma isa malignant mesenchymal neoplasm producing cartilage (but NOT tumor- associated osteoid)
who most commonly gets CSAmost commonly in medium to large breed, older dogs
what percent of bone tumor are CSA10%
where does CSA usually metastasize tothe lungs passing the lymph nodes
what type of bones is CSA commonly arise inflat bones more than long bones
what part of the bone do CSA arise frommedullary cavity
Fibrosarcoma (FSA) and hemangiosarcoma (HSA) arise from wherestart in the medullary cavity or periosteum
what percent of tumors are Fibrosarcoma (FSA) and hemangiosarcoma (HSA)7% in dogs
grossly FSA appeargrey-white
grossly HSA appeargelatinous and bright to dark red
who gets Maxillary fibrosarcomaGolden retrievers, Doberman pinscher and GSD POTATO-NOSE
weird thing about maxillary fibrosarcomabiologically high grade, histologically low grade FSA

section 8

Question Answer
Multilobular tumor of bone (MTB) histsoological appearanceSea of fibroblasts surrounding an island of mineralized mountain of bone or cartilage
where do MTB arise fromflat bones of the skull and mandible
what could be the fancy location of these MTB originssyndesmoses
does cutting MTB out work wellno, slow growing but locally destructive
name the three most common tumors of bone marrowlymphoma, mutiple myeloma and histoicytic sarcoma
Lymphoma can occur asa primary bone marrow tumor but usually spread to the medullary space of the bone via metastasis from a distant site or local extension
Multiple myeloma (MM) is atumor of well-differentiated plasma cells that infiltrate and replace the marrow elements of bone
where does multiple myeloma usually occurin the bodies of the lumbar vertebrae
DG of MMradiographs, serum electrophoresis (monoclonal gammopathy), urinalysis (Bence jones proteins/immunoglobulin fragments) and/or biopsy and histopathology
Histiocytic sarcoma is characterized histologically bypleomorphic cells with abundant cytoplasm
cell population in HS ismultinucleate giant cells
Carcinomas that metastasize to the bone includetransitional cell carcinoma, anal sac adenocarcinoma, prostatic adenocarcinoma and carcinomas of the lung, mammary and thyroid glands
in horses where does SSC met tothe lumbar spine
Osteomas arebenign! dense, smoothly contoured, protruding, slowly progressive tumors of well- differentiated bone
Osteomas are most commonly diagnosed inhorses and cats
osteomas most often arise fromthe periosteum of the skull and mandible (anatomic regions characterized by intramembranous bone formation)
osteomas are initially comprised ofwoven bone, later they get super dense and DO NOT INVADE they just "push"
Ossifying fibroma (OF) areBenign! uncommon fibro-osseous lesions of the head
ossifying fibromas appear aslarge firm masses that distort the maxilla and mandible (horses and cattle usually)
ossifying fibromas are described histologically asfibroma with bone in it (fibrous stroma of OF is more densely cellular than that of osteoma)

section 9

Question Answer
fibrous dysplasia (FD) isconsider this locally destructive but non-metastatic lesion to be "fibrous tissue with poorly formed spicules of woven bone embedded within it"
if a dysplasia occurs at one site it ismonostotic
if a dysplasia occurs at mutiple sites it ispolyostotic
where does fibrous dysplasia usually arise fromthe bones of the skull (horses and cats and humans with the G-prt)
Chondromas arebenign, well circumscribed, slowly expansile tumors of hyaline cartilage
Osteochondromatosis (AKA “multiple cartilaginous exostoses”) aredisorder of growth that typically occur shortly after birth, are inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in dogs and horses and cease to grow at skeletal maturity
osteochondromatosis are characterized asbony projections near the growth plate and often appear as multiple lesions
osteochondromatosis are histologicallyby trabecular bone continuous with the trabeculae of the medullary cavity with an outer cap of articular cartilage
osteochondromatosis act howin horses and dogs just remove and they are perfect! in cats they act more malignant as they arise from retroviral infection and exhibit disorderly (highly disorderly) endochondral ossification
three most important tumors of synovial joints aresynovial cell sarcoma (SCS), histiocytic sarcoma (HS) and synovial myxoma (SM)
synovial cell sarcoma may have what histological patterns“biphasic” pattern of growth with both solid sheets/cords of cells separted by cleft like spaces recapitulating joint synovium
what is the neoplastic orgin of SCSthe synovium-derived type B synoviocyte, a cell with a fibroblastic phenotype. Type B synoviocytes are CD18 negative
histiocytic sarcoma is derived fromperivascular interstitial dendritic cells arising within the synovium (CD18+)
histiocytic sarcoma behavior?locally aggressive, may cause lytic lesions in the epiphysis/metaphysis and frequently metastasize to regional LN, lungs, viscera
hisotologically histoocytic sarcomathe joint synovium is infiltrated by uninterrupted sheets of cytologically atypical, CD18 + histiocytes (see histo image). Multinucleated giant cells are commonly identified
Synovial myxoma (SM) isglobular/gelatinous synovium- derived tumor, often filling the joint cavity
what are the common anatomical sites for synovial myxomathe stifle synovium and digital synovium
how do synovial myxomas behaveSM tumors can invade and destroy both articular cartilage and bone T pudding

section 10 fracture terms

Question Answer
Openthe fracture penetrates the skin.
Closedthe fracture does not penetrate the skin.
Simplea clean break separating the bone into two parts.
Transversea break perpendicular to the bone's long axis.
ObliqueA break at an approximately 45 degree angle (subject to shear forces).
Spirala break which wraps around the long axis of the bone. Compound- several fragments of bone exist at the fracture site. Comminuted- several fragments of bone exist at the fracture site.
greenstickminimal separation between the fracture ends and the periosteum remains intact (generally young animals).
Avulsiona fragment of bone is torn away where a tendon or ligament attaches.
Infractionsmultiple microfractures involving adjacent trabeculae without gross displacement of the bone ends.
Stressrepeated, low level bone trauma associated with strenuous exercise (leads to cortical microfractures)
Pathologicthe presence of a pathologic lesion predisposes the bone to break.
PhysealA fracture that typically occurs in young animals and involves the growth plate


Question Answer
primary healing is characterized byminimal bridging callus formation is result of surgical intervention and rigid internal fixation and remodeling units directly bridge the fracture with bone tissue
secondary healing is characterized bysome minimal movement at the fracture site, poor anatomic reduction or other suboptimal healing conditions
what are the stages of secondary healinghematoma, inflammation, callus (fibrous, cartilage, bone), remodeling and modeling
Mesenchymal cells that comprise the fracture callus are derived fromthe periosteum and endosteum of the fractured bone
differentiation of mesenchymal cells is dependent ontissue oxygenation
initial fibrous callus is comprised of what and why ?fibrocytes and fibroblasts cells that have relatively low oxygen requirements
healing of bones via secondary healing is interdependent onthe progressive development of the vascular supply
where is a growing bone the weekestin the hypertrophic zone
growth plate fracture akaphyseal fractures (more common that breaking anywhere else in the growing bone)
salter harris Icomplete separation of the physis, also referred to as a slipped epiphysis. extends through the physeal zone of hypertrophy
whats up with SH I on the proximal femoral epiphysis in the cat (capital physis)blood supply is cut off. no blood no heal. cut that mofo out
most common physeal fractures of dogs, cats, horses and humansSH II
salter harris IIfracture plane travels through a portion of the growth plate and then diverges through the metaphysis, leaving a wedge shaped fragment of metaphyseal bone attached to the growth plate
salter harris IIIfracture extends from the physis and then diverts through the epiphyseal bone, involving the joint surface (articular cartilage)
salter harris IVfracture line extends from the metaphyseal bone, through the physis and through the epiphyseal bone and articular cartilage
salter harris Va compression fracture of the physis and can lead to premature closure of the growth plate, potentially leading to a termination in the elongation potential of the bone
SALTeR(Slip, Above (the physis), Lower (below the physis), Through, Rammed)


Question Answer
angular limb deformitiesPhyseal fractures leading to cessation of growth in a single member of a bone pair (radius/ulna) can result in a varus or valgus deformation, resulting in a medial or lateral angulation of the distal limb
what type of bone is formed after a periosteal injuryhyperplastic woven bone (parallel plates) arising from cambium layer of the periosteum
what are some causes of pathologic fracturesmetabolic bone disease, neoplasia, infection/inflammation, stress fracture or skeletal dysplasia
Stress fractures area kind of chronic pathologic fracture resulting from repetitive overuse injury manifesting as cortical microcracks
developmental disorders are usually classified asskeletal dysplasias
chondrodysplasias area group of skeletal dysplasias in which there is an abnormality in cartilage formation or development
what bonns are formed through endochondral ossificationappendicular long bones, vertebrae and the bones at the base of the skull
chondrodystrophy usually effects what bonesthose formed through endochondral ossification
what bones are formed via intramembranous ossificationthe mandible and the flat bones of the skull
are the majority of chondrodysplasias geneticfuck ya
disproportionate dwarfism iswhen the development/growth of bones formed through endochondral ossification is slowed while the growth rate is normal for those bones formed via intramembranous ossification (weeeeenie dogs)
pituitary dwarfismresulting from inadequate growth hormone production
what does it mean for a breed to be chondrodystrophicselectively bred for small stature (they get bad issues as a result)