Treatment procedures of the urinary system

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-12 23:04

Section 1

Question Answer
diureticsmedications administered to increase urine secretion, primarily to rid the body of excess water and salt
dialysisa procedure to remove waste products as well as excess water from the blood of a patient whose kidneys no longer function
hemodialysisprocess by which waste products are filtered directly from the patient's blood;performed on an external hemodialysis unit; most common type
hemodialysis unitaka artificial kidney
shuntartificial passage that allows the blood the flow between the body and the hemodialysis unit
dialysaatea sterilized solution made up of water and electrolytes;cleanses the blood by removing waste products and excess fluids
electrolytessalts that conduct electricity and are found in the body fluid, tissue, and blood
peritoneal dialysisthe lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter to remove waste from the blood; the dialysate flows into the peritoneal cavity around the intestine through a catheter implanted in the abdominal wall
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysisa dialysate solution is instilled from a plastic container worn under clothing;every 4 hours the used solution is drained back into this bag and the bag discarded; new bag attached and repeated
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysisused a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps

Section 2

Question Answer
nephrolysisthe surgical freeing of a kidney from adhesions
nephropexyaka nephrorrhaphy; the surgical fixation of a nephroptosis
nephrostomythe placement of a catheter to maintain an opening from the pelvis of one of both kidneys to the exterior of the body
pyeloplastythe surgical repair of the ureter and renal pelvis
pyelotomya surgical incision into the renal pelvis
renal transplantationaka kidney transplant; the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys
extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsyhigh-energy ultrasonic waves traveling through water or gel are used to break up the stone into fragments
extracorporealsituated or occurring outside the body
percutaneous nephrolithotomythe surgical removal of a nephrolith through a small incision in the back

Section 3

Question Answer
ureterectomysurgical removal of a ureter
ureteroplastysurgical repair of a ureter
ureterorrhaphysurgical suturing of a ureter
ureteroscopytreatment for a nephrolith lodged in the ureter
cystectomythe surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder
neobladdera replacement for the missing bladder created by using about 20" of the small intestine
ileal conduitaka ileostomy; the use of a small piece of intestine to convey urine to the ureters and to a stoma in the abdomen
cystopexythe surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall
cystorrhaphythe surgical suturing of a wound or defect in the bladder
lithotomysurgical incision for the removal of a nephrolith from the bladder
urinary catheterizationaka cathing; performed to withdraw urine for diagnostic purposes, to allow urine to drain freely, or to place fluid such as a chemotherapy solution into the bladder
indwelling catheterremains inside the body for a prolonged time based on need
urethral catheterizationperformed by inserting a plastic tube called a catheter through the urethra and into the bladder
suprapubic caatheterizationthe placement of a catheter into the bladder through a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone
Foley cathetermade of a flexible tube with a balloon filled with sterile water at the end to hold it in place in the bladder
intermittent catheteraka short-term catheter;inserted as needed several times a day to drain urine from the bladder

Section 4

Question Answer
meatotomya surgical incision made in the urethral meatus to enlarge the opening
urethropexysurgical fixation of the urethra to nearby tissue;performed to correct urinary stress incontinence
urethrotomya surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a structure
stricturean abnormal narrowing of a bodily passage
ablationcancer treatment that involves the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function through the use of surgery, hormones, drugs, heat, chemicals, elctrocautery or other methods
electrocauterythe use of high-frequency electrical current to destroy tissue
prostatectomythe surgical removal of all or a part of the prostate gland; performed to treat prostate cancer or to reduce an enlarged prostate gland
radical prostatectomythe surgical removal of the entire gland where it is extremely enlarged or when cancer is suspected
transurethral prostatectomyaka TURP; the removal of excess tissue from an enlarged prostate gland with the use of a resectoscope
resectoscopea specialized endoscopic instrument that r esembles a cytoscope
retrograde ejaculationwhen an orgasm results in semen flowing backward into the bladder instead of out through the penis
Kegel exercisesa series of pelvic muscle exercises used to strengthen the muscles of the pelvic floor
bladder retrainingbehavioral therapy in which the patient learns to urinate on a schedule, with increasingly longer time intervals as the bladder increases its capacity

Section 5

Question Answer
ARFacute renal failure
BPHbenign prostatic hyperplasia
CKDchronic kidney disease
DREdigital rectal examination
ESRDend-state renal disease
IVPintravenous pyelogram
PKDpolycystic kidney disease
TURPtransurethral resection of the prostate
UTIurinary track infection