Toxo Final Durgs MOA and or toxin 1

wilsbach's version from 2016-04-29 05:28


Question Answer
Blister beetlesCantharin, GIT and Urinary blisters, myocardial necrosis
Red cloverslaframine a mycotoxin from Rhizoctonia leguminicola (slobbers dz)
BotulismTOXICOINFECTIOUS, prevents ACh from being released
inhale molds can lead to _________ in horses RAO
seasonal pasture myopathy (atypical myopathy)Box elder tree has "hypoglycin A" toxin, causes deficiency of several Acetyl CoA dehydrogenases (MADD) which utilize flavin-adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor (basically involved in beta oxidation, and metabolism) so metabolism is inhibited. (INC ACYL-CARNITINES in serum)
Nitratesconverted to nitrites in rumen (rumi sensitive) nitrites oxidize ferrous iron to ferric iron, causes METHEMOGLOBIN to form. (tx methylene blue)
PCBsinteract with Ah receptors (they regulate cyp450) causes the receptor to do enzyme induction (immunotox, repro, chloracne, tumors, endocrine) CHICKEN EDEMA DZ
LevamisoleActivates nicotinic receptors (class imidazothiazoles)
Tetracycline ODchelates Ca++ everywhere (Ca deposits, NM blockage)
medroxy progesteronestops estrous, cystic ovaries
arsenicINORGANIC more toxic. Interferes with apoptosis by inc ROS and inc inflammatory mediators (CV, CNS, kidney, liver signs)
Cypric glycinatethis is the only drug approved to tx of toxins in cattle/calves
StrychnineCONVULSIONS bc ANTAGONIZES GLYCINE (inhibitory) receptor--> excitement (strych is not sweet LSD dude, its bitter as glycerine soap)
BromethalinUNCOUPLES OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION (how mitochondria make energy) DEC ATP in brain (bros are braindead and have no energy, laying on the couch all day)
cholecalciferolMETABOLIZED to 25-chydrochlorcalciferol/ 1,25 hydrochlorcalciferol (active), INC CA++ IN BLOOD (tx bisphosphonate) (has cal in the name. inc cal. add cal, get more cal.)
Sodium fluoroacetateINHIBITS KREBS CYCLE (flu over the krebs nest) DIFF EFFECTS ON DIFF SPECIES- some CNS, some cardiac. (he is krebby about me telling him to brush his teeth with fluoride toothpaste, but it depends on who HE is)
OP/carbamatesinhibition of acetylcholinersterASE (inc ACh)
pyrethroidskeeps voltage gated channels OPEN (activation) exceptionally toxic to cats
avermectin/milbemycinsactivate GLUTAMATE receptors (excite) (remember gene MDR-1 aka ABC-1 aka PGP) and young animals with more permeable BBB
contras for gastric lavage?****CAUSTIC/CORROSIVE SUBSTANCES (pass tube and dilue with water), volative prteolateum hydrocarbon, if inc risk of perforation
*****Tx for caustic corrosive substances? what NOT to do?DILUTE!!! water or moist foods.... discourage chem neutralization
activated charcoal not useful for?acid/alkaline things
CIs for activated charcoalperf GI, dehydration or elyte imbalance, caustic or corrosive agents (doesnt bind acids and bases)
complication of cathartic?Mg tox
when do you do enhances elim?when toxin systemically absorbed and remaining in body (diuresis, ion trapping, chelation)
ionophore MOAinflux Na efflux K, influx Ca-- disrupts transmembrane ion gradient and elec potentials, esp detrimental in excitable cells--> see main effects on cardic and skele mm, neuro or NM dysfxn. (excessive uptake of Ca by mitos--> apoptosis)
blister beetles like what plantalfalfa
MOA/toxin of seasonal pasture myopathyBOX ELDER TREE--> has hypoglycin a (I guess box elders arent very sweet, hurhur), this toxin causes a deficiency of MADD (mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenases), this is the enzyme responsible for beta oxidation (fat metabolism) and other metabolisms--> degen and necrosis of TYPE 1 mm fibers--> see inc lipids in the mm fibers
inc acyl-carnitines in serum?seasonal pasture myopathy (hypoglycin a from box elder causes deficiency of MAD aka mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenases) (that has acyl in the word too. So ACE the horse has PASTURE PROBS)
only drug approved for cattle??CUPRIC GLYCINATE (prevent Cu deficiency/molibdimum tox)
**what causes chicken edema dz?PCBs and dioxin (Ah receptor agonism leading to enzyme induction to horrible problems)
**brown discolored tissues?nitrate poisoning
**what does levamisole work through?nicotinic receptor agonism (its a imidazothiazole)
**metals mess with what bonds?sulfhydryl bonds
nitrate vs nitrite ferric versus ferrous?nitRITES are worse, and it converts to ferrIC which is what causes the methhgb
doxycycline tox probs?CHELATES Ca++!!!! so see Ca depositing everywhere and NM blockade (need ca++ for NT release from vesicles remember)
MOA arsenicinterferes with apoptosis. also all metals inc ROSs- see effects on CV, CNS, KIDNEY, LIVER
sp diff of sodium fluoroacetate(krebby about teeth fluoride) large animals= only heart. cat pig and human (the moodiest)= heart AND brain. dog is only CNS (some say theyre the smartest)
OP and carbamates...inhibit acetylcholinesterase
pyrethroids/DDT...activate sodium channels (cats gonna be a little salty after you put that flea stuff on) (type 2 pyrethroids also inhibit GABA)
avermectinsactivate glutamate receptors (collies are so sweet)
2-PAMOP/carbamate (+atropine)
4-MPethylene glycol
MDR-1avermectins (AKA ABC-1 AKA PGP)

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Question Answer
roundup safe till...comes in contact with heavy metals in water, complexes.
3 general MOA of metal tox(1) inhibit enzymes (2) Mimicry (replace useful metals in body) (3) oxidative damage
what enzyme does lead inhibitheme synth enzymes
3 metals mimic Zncadmium, copper, nickel (CCN is letter Z on my list of things i want)
what mimics K+?thallium
2 metals which make free oxygen (carbon, sulfur) radicals?nickel, chromium
how can metals be carcinogenic?ionic forms bind and form adducts with DNA and protein (Cadmium)
which type of arsenic is more toxicArsenite (3+) > arsenate (5+) (the knight can kill nate!!)
Arsenic likes to accumulate...liver (wood plank through the liver)
Cadmium likes to accumulateliver and testicles AND KIDNEYS (cadbury
how Cadmium gets around to inflict toxbinds to albumin/metallothionine which transport into cells (often kidney cells) and take it to sensitive sites in the cell--> tox
what metal depletes glutathione (GSH)Cadmium (balls are gonna take away your ability to protect yourself) (super long lasting so depletes things)
who is most susceptible to cadmium?horses (horses dont like cadbury eggs)
cadmium mimics..Ca++ and Zn (CAZium)
MOA lead (unique)interferes with heme (hemoglobin) biosynthesis via blocking ALA dehydrogenase and ferrochelatase, also neurotoxicant (interrupts BBB and affects CNS NTs), can mimic Ca++
mercury accumulates whereKIDNEY AND BRAIN (in my Kid-brain, mercury was extra scary)
lead accumulates...CNS
****common MOA of all the heavy metalsbind to sulfhydryl groups which are part of the tricarboxylic acid cycles (aka krebs) so esp impairs cells rapidly dividing etc. IN IONIC FORM, also bind to DNA/protein--> make adducts--> carcinogenic
what does arsenate do?(less toxic arsenic one) inhibits oxidative phosphorylation
causes laryngeal paralysis in the horse?LEAD (lol weighs down their arytenoids) (technically pea (lathyrus) too-- so lots of lead in peas lol)
2 metals bind sulfurHg and Cd (cadburry eggs are filled with mercury and eggs smell like sulfur)
Sodium Thiosulfatebinds Arsenic/metals
dimercaprol aka BAL (british anti-lewisite)binds metals (arsenic, etc)
milk and egg whites bind...arsenic (breakfast served on a plank)
CaEDTAbinds lead (remember lead mimics Ca++ )
protective genes for metalsMetallothionein (BIND UP METALS, inducible genes, regulate availability) and heme oxygenase
major toxic metalsarsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium
4 metal binding proteins/transporters(1) metallothienines (2) transferrin (3) ferritin (storage) (4) ceruloplasmin
which heavy metal has a carnivore vs herbivore tx regieme and what is itArsenic. Carnivores=milk and egg whites or sodium thiosulfate. herbivores=saline purgatives, sodium thiosulfate
most sig metal tox?lead
what interferes with heme biosynth?lead (affects alanine dehydrogenase, ferrochelatase)
lead mimics...Ca!! So use CaEDTA to bind up.
food that contains lots of mercuryfish, esp high up in the food chain.