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Tox- Plants- Nervous System 2

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kelseyfmeyer's version from 2016-11-28 18:02

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Question Answer
coyotillo (Karwinskia sp): MOA of toxin, what major probs does it cause?All plant parts are toxic! Has Toxins that disrupt axoplasmal transport; degeneration of distal axonal segment of large motor peripheral nerves; "dying back syndrome" leading to Progressive polyneuropathy, ascending systemic paralysis, flaccid quadriplegia. INTERESTING BC DYING BACK DEGENERATION GOES FROM BACK TO FRONT (hence progressive polyneuropathy). So CS you will see are: Gradual onset (days to weeks), hypersensitivity to touch and sounds, tremors, dragging pelvic limbs, loss of motor control, collapse, see degeneration of Schwann cells large motor axons (sciatic)
How can you try to treat coyotillo (karwinskia) toxicity?(remember it causes degen of distal axonal segment of motor peripheral nerves--> progressive polyneuropathy) give supplementation of thiamine hydrochloride (support neuronal health?)
Senna and Mesquite (Prosopis sp.) both cause what problems?cause neuronal excitation (Senna: Limb abnormalities, paresis, paralysis, muscle weakness, recumbency, Lip/tongue movement abnormalities, eating, drinking/and swallowing difficulty. Mesquite: nervous – difficult in coordinating jaw and tongue movements, tongue often protruding from mouth )
Knapweed (Centaurea sp., starthistle): What dz does this cause?Equine Parkinsonism, chewing disease - nigropallidal encephalomalacia
what is the formal name for "Equine Parkinsonism, chewing disease" and what plant causes it? What are the CSs?this is nigropallidal encephalomalacia, which is caused by KNAPWEED (centaurea). CSs include: Abrupt onset, impaired eating, drinking, Hypertonicity of lips, tongue, fixed facial expression, continuous chewing, Tongue protruding , curled out to form groove or V shape. Dehydration, anorexia (Parkinsons is so frustrating I just wanna take a knap)
mimosa (Albizia sp.): What is the toxin? MOA of this?The toxin is an Alkaloid – 4-methoxypyridoxine, which is a structural analog of Vit. B6!! Vitamin B6 is used for enzymatic functions as a cofactor. this means you will see: (EXCITATORY) Exaggerated response to tactile and auditory stimuli, muscular twitching, tremors, Seizures characterized by labored respiration, collapse, with extended forelimbs and paddling pelvic limbs, Seizures lasts for 1-2 mins, repeated after several minutes
How do you treat mimosa toxicity?(remember has 4-methoxypyridoxine which is a structural analogue of B6, which acts as a cofactor for enzymes) GIVE Pyridoxine hydrochloride supplementation (I would like 4 mimosas at a time please-- they are good for you bc the orange juice gives you VITAMNIS, but they will make you a little NEURO with the booze...)
Poison hemlock (Cicuta sp): What is the toxin/MOA of this?*HAS TERATOGENIC EFFECTS=CROOKED CALF SYNDROME. Has both toxic and teratogenic effects which are similar. contains various nicotine like pyridine alkaloids (coniine and ɣ-coniceine most important), and ALSO does GABA receptor antagonism.
CSs of poison hemlock (cicuta) tox?(remember, has nicotine like pyridine alkaloids (coniine and ɣ-coniceine most important), and ALSO does GABA receptor antagonism) Uneasiness, twitching of muscles of lips, face, ears, grinding teeth, Violent muscular activity unable to stand , kicking/ running, tonic/clonic seizuresDeath in 1-8 hrs. (cardiopulmonary arrest)
what plant/toxin causes crooked calf disease? What is the presentation of crooked calf dz? Susceptible periods?Caused by mom's ingestion of poison hemlock-->TERATOGENIC EFFECTS. You will see: skeletal contracture-type malformations and occasional cleft palates in cattle and goats (there are susceptible gestation periods and species differences). These contractures occur because the poison hemlock causes Alkaloid-induced inhibition of foetal movement during specific gestational periods. susceptible periods: CLEFT PALATE: 30-50d. mult congenital CONTRACTURES: 50-100d
When is WATER hemlock most poisonous? what is this toxicity like?spring (young) plants most toxic, mature less so. Plant is very similar to poison hemlock (GABA inhibition) Clinical signs occur within 15 minutes: nervousness, twitching of facial muscles, ataxia, generalised tremors, frequent urination and defecation, Progress within hours to collapse, seizures, death due to respiratory failure or cardio-pulmonary arrest
MOA of water hemlock toxin? What IS the toxin?cicutoxin (hemlock species are cicuta!) INHIBITS GABA (which is an inhibitor NT) meaning there is SUPER STIMULATION of the CNS. It acts on the CNS to block Na+ and K+ ion channels. (Clinical pathology findings secondary to seizures include: elevated CK, LDH and AST levels)
compare and contrast POISON hemlock and WATER hemlock (cicuta sp)POISON: Toxins are a nicotine like pyridine alkaloid AND does GABA antagonism. Causes Crooked calf dz. WATER: has cicutoxin, ALSO inhibits GABA leading to superstim of CNS.
Lupinus and Nicotiana sp: TOXIC and TERATOGENIC effects of these two plants are very similar. What are their respective toxins?LUPINUS: quinozolidine alkaloids (agonize nACh receptors aka nicotinic receptors). NICOTIANA: contains contain nicotine alkaloids (obv these work on nicotinic receptors too)
Who is most affected by Lupinus and Nicotiana sp.? CSs?mainly sheep (remember both lupinus (quinozolidine alkaloids) and nicotiana (nicotine alkaloids) both cause effects on nicotinic ACh receptors). So SHEEP are most affected, and you will see signs associated with stim of nicotine receptors: Excitement, followed by depression, ataxia, muscle weakness and twitching, dyspnea
lupine MAO again?quinozolidine alkaloids working on nicotinic ACh receptors (cigarettes make you lupie)
White snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) what is the toxic substance? what is the MOA of it?*****trematone is the toxin, which is activated by CYP450 and the active form interferes with glucose metabolism
****what causes milk sickness in humans-what is milk sickness?cause by WHITESNAKEROOT (ageratina altissima) because the activated TREMATONE toxin is secreted in milk which ppl then drink. It interferes with glucose metabolism, so you will see: weight loss, weakness, reluctance to move and tremors
if an animal or human (milk sickness) ingests white snakeroot, what will clinpath findings show?REMEMBER has TREMATONE toxin which INHIBITS GLUCOSE METABOLISM--> This means you will see elevated liver and muscle enzymes, hyperglycaemia and alkalosis (not metabolizing glucose so it's high, mm not getting glucose so theyre freaking out, liver is responsible for converting trematone to the active form VIA CYP450 so it's ground zero).
which plant has trematone, what is this again?WHITE SNAKEROOT (snakes kina look like trematodes?) and remember it inhibits glucose metabolism (trematodes eat up all your sugars)
Aconitum sp: What are the toxins, what is the MOA of these toxins?Toxic alkaloids are aconitine, hypaconitine and mesacinitine-- These have High affinity binding to the open state of voltage-sensitive sodium channels. This causes Persistent activation of the Na + channels --> refractory to excitation. THEY ALSO cause a Increase in calcium → neurotransmitter acetylcholine release
What problems does Aconitum cause?(REMEMBER-- keeps voltage gated Na++ channels open (persistent depol) and inc Ca-->inc ACh release) This results in FATAL POISONING due to: (1) GI: Nausea, V/D. (2) Motor weakness (3) CVS: hypotension, bradycardia and arrhythmias
(said in class review) Soo what causes toxic honey for ppl? what causes toxic milk for ppl?HONEY: rhododendron. MILK: White snakeroot (milk snake. lol.)
Chinaberry (Melia sp): What is the toxin in this? What problems does it cause?Has ***Triterpenoids (azadirachtin) which cause CSs like: Salivation, retching, vomiting, diarrhea, Early excitement, then paralysis, Respiration – labored & irregular, weakness, muscle spasms, ataxia, seizures. (on path you'll see Focal edema, reddening of mucosa of stomach, and small intestine, bloat)
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