Tox- Plants- GIT

wilsbach's version from 2016-04-19 00:13

Poops (if tx not mentioned, it's just supportive)

Question Answer
Bagpod (Sesbania sp): what is the toxic substance? Which part of the plant is toxic? What does it do (in general) Glycosides. Green and ripe seeds (beans) are the toxic part. with a distinct foaming characteristic causing irritation to the mucous membranes
**What causes purple comb in chickens???bagpod
CSs of bagpod ingestion (Whats the toxic substance again?)Has glycosides, causes watery to mucoid diarrhea with blood, anorexia, ↓ ruminal activity, weak/depressed. Will see Moderate to severe abomasal & intestinal reddening. in chickens causes purple comb and profuse diarrhea
what are the toxins in iris?glycoside, iridin, also terpenes, and organic acids (myristic acid, tridecylenic acid & undecylenic acid)
CSs of iris intoxication?basically severe GI signs: Salivation, abdominal pain, profuse diarrhea with blood (Reddening, edema, haemorrhages, ulcerations mucosa of the stomach and small intestine )
Privet (Lingustrum sp) (the ornamental hedging)-- Toxic principal? which parts of plant are toxic? CSs?Glycosides (Leaves, trimmings, berries are toxic) which means severe irritant. So see Diarrhea, colic, vomiting, ataxia (Intense reddening mucosa of the stomach or abomasum and small intestine)
Daffodils: What is the toxic substance? which part of the plants are toxic? CSs?Phenanthridine alkaloids (you think spring is Phen? Think again) basically whole plant is toxic (Bulbs, flowers, stems, even cooked). CS: vomiting, excess salivation, restlessness, diarrhea (rarely depression and ataxia). (tx is just supportive- antiemetic, antidiarrheal)
Pokeweed (Phytolacca sp): what problems does ingesting any part of pokeweed cause? CSs?Leaves (in green chop feed) or roots → transient digestive disorder (monogastric animals and ruminants). CSs: Diarrhea (3-4 hours monogastrics; 6-8 hours ruminants), colored faeces due to purple-red juice from berries, Pigs – ataxia, sedation, tonic seizures (roots) (will see reddening of mucosa of stomach and small intestine, with small focal erosions)
Buttercup (Ranunculus sp): what is the toxic principle in this? MOA? oily glycoside called ranunculin Is converted by plant enzymes to protoanemonin → acts as a strong irritant. This leads to Irritation of GI mucous membranes/blisters on skin/ liver damage with 2* photosensitization (also hematuria/ red milk). (So do you like butter is really not the question you ask, you should ran (ranunculin) away before you get punched in the liver)
what group of crappy plants does castor bean belong to?lectins (remember rosary pea aka abrin is in this group, abrin affects protein synth and leads to endothelial cell damage--> vascular leakage/edema)
Castor bean (Ricinus communis): toxin/MOA for castor bean?Consists of ricin (a glycoprotein) composed of lectin absorption facilitator B chain (binding part) and enzymatic A chain (toxic part)inhibits ribosomes (prevents protein synthesis) (remember 2 proteins/AAs bound by disulfide bridge, just like abrin/rosary pea)
Ricin is toxic component of which plant?Castor bean
in short, what is the MOA of ricin (which plant?)Castor bean plant has ricin, ricin is a kind of lectin which means it has a binding B-chain and an Active (toxic) A-chain. It inhibits ribosome function. (she went into complicated MOA-- not really gonna bother to memorize, but basically B chain binds, ricin internalized, high levels cause it to enter golgi, taken to ER, disulfide holding A and B together gets broken, A chain moves to react with ribosome, inhibits protein synth)
what are the CSs of Castor bean (ricin)/ rosary pea (abrin) (both lectins) ingestion?SEVERE GI irritation (all the signs that go with that), also anorexia, sweating, vomiting, dec in BP, dec in lactation, dehydration + hypovolemic shock (rapid loss of water and Elytes from severe hge diarrhea)
Senna: which part of the plant is most toxic, and WHO is most affected by toxins?seeds most toxic, pigs and chickens most severely affected.
What major problems does Senna cause- what are the CSs?causes skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration as well as GI mucosa irritation. So you will see: diarrhea/straining, mm weakness, cardiac insufficiency, myoglobinuria, elevated AST, CPK. GI mucosa will be reddened, skele mm pale with pale streaks, transversely banded stippling. Cardiac mm will be flabby with pale streaks.
persimmon (Diospyros sp)- What parts are toxic? When? MOA?This is a problem when the fruit is UNRIPE-- this is when it contains a lot of tannins (soluble condensed tannins), these tannins cross link in the stomach with astringent action on stomach mucosa resulting in ulcerations. It also means they can't be broken down easily, so the fruits act as *****phytobenzoars in stomach and small intestine, leading to impactions.
CSs od persimmon tox?Remember tannins-->crosslink--> astringent action--> ulcerations (and phytobezoars). This leads to Severe colic, absence of gut motility(bc obstruction), elevated heart rate in horses, Perforations of gastric ulcerations, peritonitis
how can you tx persimmon ingestion?Oral administration of mineral oil (help slide obstruction along), Mechanical breakup of *phytobezoars with endoscope; dissolve by cellulase and papain, Surgical intervention to remove mass
what are common Plants causing GIT impactions and obstructions?Can be caused by poorly chewed or entire fruits or seeds (apples, sugar beets, turnips, onions & persimmons)
Rumen impaction and intestinal obstruction can be caused by..Chinaberry, mesquite pods and beans, mescal bean pods and beans and persimmon fruits. **Sheep may eat large quantities of mesquite flowers covered with poorly digestible hairs
what problem do mesquite pods cause?hairy indigestible fibers on flowers can lead to obstruction, esp sheep. Pods/beans also cause this prob
pepper (Capsicum): what is the toxic substance in them, what problem does it cause?has Capsaicinoids which cause Irritation at the site of contact, mouth, eyes, skin, leading to Excess salivation, and if large amounts ingested, V/D. Effects are transient
Excess salivation with inflammation of mouth and lips is caused by what plants?Dieffenbachia, devil’s ivy (golden pothos), philodendron
Dieffenbachia, devil’s ivy (golden pothos), philodendron: What is the toxin? What problems does it cause?Raphides are the toxic substance, which are extruded from idioblasts (plant storage cells) when external pressure is applied (chewing). It also has oxalate crystals in the stem and leaves (needle like crystals). This leads to Drooling/frothy saliva due to irritation of mucosa, and Crystals can be present in cornea for several days. (from werner's notes: can also cause kidney damage with CaOx crystals) So see Immediate swelling of lips, tongue, mouth; excess salivation, pain might animal unable to eat for several days. Might see conjunctivitis. Tx with sedation, NSAIDs, soft food, steroid ointment for eyes
how do Cactus, burdock cause problems?Caused by: ingestion of sharp grass awns, spiny plants (prickly per cactus), or plants with burs (burdock or cocklebur) resulting in damage of the oral mucosa Grass awns or spines can cause large ulcers, and can act as foreign bodies causing abscesses and draining wounds
Spurge (Euphorbia sp.): How does this cause problems?Irritant effects on oral mucous membrane, eyes/skin--> Excess salivation with inflammation of mouth & lips. Tx with topical relief
what are the Plants causing greenish salivation with nasal discharge vomiting?Hymenoxys (bitterweeds) or Helenium (sneeze-weeds)
what problems do Hymenoxys (bitterweeds) or Helenium (sneeze-weeds) cause? Who is most affected? What is the toxin (general)?Toxin is lactones. Cause a syndrome of sneezing and vomiting. mainly sheep and goat are affected
what are the specific toxins for bitterweeds and sneeze-weeds? What is their MOA?sesquiterpene lactones (sneezeweed) and pseudoguaianolides (bitterweed) (THEY ARE LACTONES.) They are inherently highly irritating to nose, eyes, and GI (hence persistent vomiting). The lactones also have profound effect on metabolism because they bind with sulfhydryl bonds and this causes metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia
what causes "spewing sickness" in sheep? ingestion orange sneezeweed for several weeks (projectile vomiting)
tx you might provide for bitterweed/sneezeweed tox?Anticholinergic, antidepressant, antiarrhythmic drugs + Supportive care (activated charcoal, osmotic laxatives)
what causes slobbers dz in horses?RED CLOVER has a FUNGI (Rhizoctonia leguminicola) growing on it, and the fungi produces the mycotoxin ***slaframine (indolizidine alkaloid) (related with swainsonine as in locoweed- remember locoweed causes cardiomyopathy)
how will you know if the red clover might be bad for a horse? black or brown spots on the leaves especially under wet conditions (black patch disease) means it is infected with rhizoctonia leguminicola, which produces the toxins slaframine which causes slobbers dz in horses (slobbers slaframine)
Rhododendron sp. & Kalmia sp have what toxin? which part of the plant is toxic? what is the MOA of this toxin?ALL of plant is toxic, esp leaves....contains GRYANOTOXIN which binds to voltage gated Na+ channels on membranes, causing delay in closing of channels. This causes persistant activation and inc in Na permeability by 100 fold. (so persistent depol....followed by paralysis)
who is affected by grayanotoxin the most (which plants again?)Rhododendron/kalmia: Goats & sheep are more susceptible....bees can create toxic honey from it so it can affect ppl too
CSs of grayanotoxin?(remember binds to voltage gates Na channels to delay them from closing=persistent depol=eventual paralysis) depression, marked salivation, anorexia, colic, bruxism, bellowing, bloat, regurgitation & vomiting may be projectile → secondary aspiration pneumonia, diarrhea, goats may abort, weakness, reluctance/inability to stand, convulsions, paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias (Think: projectile vomiting sheep,nervous disorder)
Zigadenus sp (Death camas or star lily): what is the toxin? what is its MOA?zygacine alkaloid, which causes increase of the permeability of sodium channels of nerve cells, resulting in continuous firing, followed by decreased excitability. Increased stimulation of the vagal nerve results in hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. (she said in class: inc ach release!!!)
Zigadenus sp (Death camas or star lily): CSs? most common in who?REMEMBER: zygacine alkaloid causes INC PERMEABILITY OF Na+ CHANNELS IN NERVE CELLS--> continuous firing and dec excitability (lots of Ach release) so see... Profuse frothy salivation, depression, nausea, regurgitation, retching, colic, grinding of teeth , Hyperexcitable (increased reflex activity), severe weakness, animals prefer to lie down. Most common in SHEEP (Atropine might help)