Topical Agents

dexeroso's version from 2017-06-18 11:51

Topical Agents

Question Answer
Topical AgentsHeterogeneous class of agents that have effects on epithelial surfaces and are mostly nonselective in action.
Topical Agents:Properties – Insolubility – Chemical Inertness – Adsorbent
Topical AgentsRefers to any agent that isolates the exposed surface (skin or other membranes) from harmful or annoying stimuli.
Topical Agents:Category • Protectives • Astringents • Antimicrobials


Question Answer
Protectives • Talc • Zinc Oxide • Calamine • Zinc Stearate • Titanium dioxide • Silicon Polymers
Talc (3MgO.4SiO2.H2O)Talcum, French Chalk, Purified chalk
Talc (3MgO.4SiO2.H2O)– Softest mineral – In nature: it occurs in lumps known as steatite (soap stone) – native hydrous magnesium silicate – Liable to be contaminated by bacteria
Talc (3MgO.4SiO2.H2O):Uses– Dusting powder (should not be applied on broken skin or wound) – Lubricating agent or lubricant (foot powders and also in tableting process) – Filtering aid (chemically inert, particle size: 80/100 mesh, non-adsorptive properties)
– Mild astringent, weak antimicrobial and topical antacid – Antiseptic and skin protective (Dusting powder, paste and ointment) – Dental cement – Used in some bandages and adhesivesZinc Oxide: Uses
Calamine:Calcined native zinc oxide ore with ferric oxide (pink or reddish-brown powder)
– Mild astringent – Dusting powder – Used as a cream, lotion or ointment in various skin disordersCalamine:Uses
Zinc StearateMixture of fatty acid zinc soaps
– Mild astringents and has anti-infective properties – Dusting powder – Protective for skin inflammation – Lubricant in tablet manufacturing – Water-proofing agentZinc Stearate:Uses
Titanium DioxideHas a higher refractive index (absorbs UV light)
– Prevent sunburn – Used as a white pigment in lotions and cosmetic preparations – Relief of pruritus and in dermatosesTitanium Dioxide:Uses
Silicon Polymers (Silicones)Inert polymers with a structure constituting of alternate atoms of silicon and oxygen and organic groups (methyl or phenyl)
– Skin protectant – Anti-foaming agent – Used for dressing the woundsSilicon Polymers (Silicones):Uses

Astringent and Antiperspirant

Question Answer
Astringent and Antiperspirantcally-applied protein precipitants that have low cell penetrability
– Styptic – Antidiarrheal – Reduce inflammation of mucous membranes – Promote healing – Decrease sweatingUses:Astringent and Antiperspirant
• Salts of cations (Al, Zn, Mn, Fe, Bi) • Other salts that contain above mentioned metals (MnO4-) • Tannins or related polyphenolic compounds.Types:Astringent and Antiperspirant
Astringent and Antiperspirant• Alum • Aluminum Acetate Topical Solution • Aluminum Chloride • Aluminum Chlorohydrates • Aluminum Sulfate • Zinc Chloride
Alum• Powerful astringent in acidic solutions • Sometimes used as a styptic
Aluminum Acetate Topical Solution

Astringent and Antiperspirant Compounds

Question Answer
Aluminum Acetate Topical SolutionBurrow's solution
Aluminum Acetate Topical Solutionused in the treatment of athlete’s foot, dermatitis, diaper rash, dry skin, poison ivy poisoning and inflammation of the external ear.
Aluminum Chloride• Astringent • Anhidrotic(Al?)
Aluminum Chlorohydrates• less acidic than AlCl3 • Hydrates of Al(OH)2Cl
Aluminum Sulfate• Powerful astringent • Buffered with sodium aluminum lactate • Used in the alum flocculation process(Al?)
Zinc ChlorideButter of zinc(it is deliquescent)


Question Answer
Antiseptic– any agent which kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms found in living tissue.
Disinfectant– same as above but found in inanimate objects.
Germicide– fungicide, bactericide, amoebicide and etc.
Oxidation/Halogenation/Protein ppt.(astringent)Mechanism of Actions (Antimicrobials)
Hydrogen Peroxide• Contains 2.5 – 3.5 g of H2O2 • Usually deteriorates on standing and agitation • Decomposes rapidly in the presence of OA or RA • May act as an OA or RA, depending on the chemical environment. • Mild oxidizing antiseptic (due to the action of catalase)
OxidationHydrogen Peroxide(MOA)
Sodium Perborateused as a bleaching agent in non- chlorine laundry bleaches.
Potassium PermanganateMineral Chameleon
Potassium Permanganate• Odorless, dark purple crystalline compound. • A strong oxidizing agent both in the dry state and in solution • Acid solutions reduce the permanganate ion (Mn+7) to the manganous ion (Mn+2) • Neutral or alkaline solutions reduce the permanganate ion (Mn+7) to the manganic ion (Mn+4)
Chlorinated LimeBleaching Lime; Chloride of Lime
Chlorinated LimeMade by passing Cl gas over slaked lime; contains calcium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide and chloride ions.
Chloramines – organic amines with one or two chlorine atoms bonded to nitrogen. Examples
Oxidation/HaloginationChlorinated Lime(MOA?)
Sodium Hypochlorite Solution, USPDalkins Sol./Labaraqque's Sol
Dalkins solutionContains not less than 4.0 and not more than 6.0 percent of NaClO.
Labaraqque's Solution– 2.5% solution of NaClO
Diluted Sodium Hypochlorite Solution (Modified Dakin’s Solution)in each 100 ml, contains not less than 450 mg and not more than 500 mg of NaClO; contains bicarbonate.
Sodium Hypochlorite Topical Solution, USP in each 1000 ml, contains not less than 0.20 g and not more than 0.32 g of NaClO; contains biphosphates(Highest conc. of this solutions of Na)
Iodine PreparationsAntimicrobial property: due to oxidation and iodination
HalogenationIodine Preparations(MOA?)
Iodophores – compounds such as iodides or PVP that enhances the solubility of I2
Iodine Preparations• Iodine Topical Solution • Strong Iodine Solution • Iodine Tincture • Strong Iodine Tincture
Protein ppt or astringentSilver Compounds(MOA?)Antimicrobial Activity
Silver Nitrate Topical Solutionprophylaxis against infection by gonococcal microorganisms.
Silver Sulfadiazine effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa; used as adjunct in the prevention treatment of wound sepsis in 2nd- and 3rd-degree burns.
Argyriagray to gray-black staining of the skin produced by silver deposition.
allotropic forms.Sulfur exists in different ?
Sulfur and Sulfur CompoundsFungicide, parasiticide, keratolytic agent and depilatory agent
Sublimed Sulfur:Flowers of Sulfur
Sublimed Sulfurformed from condensing sulfur vapor; composed primarily of rhombic sulfur.
Precipitated Sulfur: Milk of sulfur
Precipitated Sulfur:prepared from the reaction of sulfides and HCl.
Sulfur Ointmentprepared from Precipitated Sulfur, Mineral Oil and White Ointment.
Sulfurated Potash:Liver of sulfur
Sulfurated Potash: a mixture composed primarily of potassium polysulfides and potassium thiosulfate; prepared by heating potassium carbonate and sulfur at a maximum temperature of 185°C
Selenium Sulfide used in the treatment of seborrhea dermatitis; has cytostatic effects.
Antimony Potassium Tartrate:Tartar Emetic
StibophenTreatment of schistosomiasis
AstringentAntimony Compounds(MOA?)
AstringentArsenic Compounds(MOA?)
MelarsoprolOrganic arsenical used for the treatment of African Sleeping sickness.
Carbarsoneused in the treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis
Glycobiarsolbismuthyl-containing pentavalent arsenic compound, used in the treatment of intestinal amebiasis