Top 200 Drugs (Drug and MOA)

waveurflag's version from 2018-09-29 19:45

Section 1

Question Answer
Acylovir/ZoviraxStops replication of herpes viral DNA by competitive inhibition of viral DNA polymerase, incorporation into and termination of the growing viral DNA chain, and inactivation of the viral DNA polymerase
Adalimumab/HumiraBinds specifically to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and blocks its interaction with the p55 and p75 cell surface TNF receptor and also modulates biological responses that are induced or regulated by TNF, including changes in the levels of adhesion molecules responsible for leukocyte migration.
Albuterol/ProAirHFASelectively acts on the beta (2)-adrenergic receptors of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the catalyst for the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) resulting in bronchial smooth muscle relaxation and inhibition of release of immediate hypersensitivity mediators from mast cells
Alendronate/FosamaxBinds to bone hydroxyapatite and inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. At the cellular level, it shows localization to sites of bone resorption and inhibits osteoclast resorption and activity
Allopurinol/ZyloprimAlong with its metabolite, it decrease the production of uric acid by inhibiting the action of xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid. It also increases reutilization of hypoxanthine and xanthine for nucleotide and nucleic acid synthesis;
Alprazolam/XanaxUnknown mechanism of action, but presumably exerts its effects by binding to various stereo-specific receptors in the CNS
Amitriptyline/ElavilPromotes neuronal activity by blocking the membrane pump mechanism which is responsible for the absorption of serotonin and norepinephrine in serotonergic and adrenergic neurons
Amlodipine/NorvascBlocks the transmembrane influx of calcium ions into cardiac and vascular smooth muscles. It also reduces peripheral vascular resistance and lowers blood pressure by causing a direct vasodilation in the peripheral arteries of the vascular smooth muscle.
Amoxicillin/AmoxilInhibits the biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide and is bactericidal
Amoxicillin+Clavulanate/AugmentinInhibits the biosynthesis of cell wall mucopeptide and is bactericidal AND may inactivate beta-lactamase enzymes, protecting amoxicillin against degradation and extending its antibiotic spectrum
Amphetamine/AdderallUnknown, but is thought to occur via blockage of the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine in the presynaptic neuron leading to increased release of these monoamines in the extraneuronal space
Arpiprazole/AbilifyMay exert its effects through partial agonist activity at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2(1A) receptors and antagonism of serotonin 5-HT2(2A) receptors
Atenolol/TenorminInhibits beta(2)-adrenoreceptors primarily found in bronchial and vascular musculature at higher doses
Atomoxetine/StratteraPurportedly enhances noradrenergic function via selective inhibition of the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter
Atorvastatin/LipitorSelectively and competitively inhibits HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A to mevalonate, a sterol and cholesterol precursor
Azithromycin/ZithromaxBacteriostatic/ inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 23S rRNA of the 50S subunit

Section 2

Question Answer
Baclofen/LioresalActs mainly at the spinal cord level to inhibit the transmission of both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes, possibly by hyperpolarization of primary afferent fiber terminals resulting in antagonism of the release of putative excitatory transmitters (i.e., glutamic and aspartic acids). Actions at supraspinal sites may also be involved. In addition, it has general central nervous system (CNS)–depressant actions
Benazepril/LotensinA prodrug is hepatically cleaved to form its active drug, which is a more potent non-sulfhydryl angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. ACE inhibition prevents the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, resulting in decreased angiotensin II with subsequent decrease in vasopressor activity and aldosterone secretion, and increase in serum potassium levels. Its antihypertensive action is believed to be primarily due to suppression of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Benzonatate/TessalonSuppresses cough through a peripheral action, anesthetizing the stretch or cough receptors of vagal afferent fibers, which are located in the respiratory passages, lungs, and pleura; also, may suppress transmission of the cough reflex by a central mechanism, at the level of the medulla
Benztropine/Cogentin centrally-acting anticholinergic agent with antihistaminic properties
Budesonide/Uceris Anti-inflammatory effects result from decreased formation, release, and activity of the mediators of inflammation (eg, kinins, histamine, liposomal enzymes, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes). These effects reduce the initial manifestations of the inflammatory process
Budesonide+Formeterol/Symbicort Anti-inflammatory effects result from decreased formation, release, and activity of the mediators of inflammation (eg, kinins, histamine, liposomal enzymes, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes). These effects reduce the initial manifestations of the inflammatory process AND stimulation of the production of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) via activation of adenyl cyclase
Buprenorphine+Naloxone/Suboxonepartial mu-opioid receptor agonist and kappa-opioid receptor antagonist [4] that exerts analgesic effects by binding to CNS opiate receptors AND opioid antagonist with greatest affinity for the mu receptor
Bupropion/Wellbutrininhibits weakly the neuronal uptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, but does not inhibit monoamine oxidase or the reuptake of serotonin
Buspirone/Busparexhibits high affinity for serotonin (5-HT(1A)) receptors, moderate affinity for brain D(2)-dopamine receptors and no significant affinity for benzodiazepine receptors.unknown mechanism of action
Carisoprodol/Somablocks interneuronal activity in descending reticular formation and spinal cord, resulting in muscle relaxation
Carvedilol/Coregnonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent with alpha 1-adrenergic blocking activity and no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity
Cefdinir/OmnicefBactericidal/inhibits cell wall synthesis and is is resistant to beta-lactamase enzymes
Cefuroxime/CeftinBactericidal/Inhibits cell wall synthesis and is is resistant to beta-lactamase enzymes
Celecoxib/CelebrexInhibits prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via inhibition of cyclooxygenase and its mode of action may due to a decrease of peripheral tissue prostaglandins, which sensitize afferent nerves, potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain, and mediate inflammation
Cephalexin/KeflexBactericidal/Inhibits cell wall synthesis which occurs through binding to one or more penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of actively dividing cells

Section 3

Question Answer
Cetirizine/ZyrtecSelectively inhibits the effect of peripheral H(1)-receptors
Ciprofloxacin/CiproBactericidal / interferes with the enzyme DNA gyrase, which is needed for the synthesis of bacterial DNA
Citalopram/CelexaHighly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor with minimal effects on neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine
Clarithromycin/BiaxinBacteriostatic/inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome
Clindamycin/CleocinBacteriostatic/ inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome.
Clobetasol/ClovateControls biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation and stimulates phospholipase A(2) inhibitory proteins and subsequently blocks the release of arachidonic acid, which is a common precursor to leukotrienes and prostaglandins
Clonazepam/KlonopinEnhances the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system
Clopidogrel/PlavixMetabolized to the active form(thiol derivative) that inhibits platelet aggregation by selectively and irreversibly binding to the adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor on platelets. This binding prevents activation of the ADP-mediated glycoprotein GPIIb/IIIa complex, which is necessary for platelet aggregation
Codeine/Acetaminphen/Tylenol #3Binds to the mu receptor as an opiate receptor agonist and centrally acting analgesic and antipyretic with minimal anti-inflammatory properties
Cyclobenzaprine/FlexerilActs primarily at the brain stem within the central nervous system as opposed to the spinal cord. It influences both gamma and alpha motor systems by reducing tonic somatic motor activity
Dabigatran/PradaxaInhibits both free and clot-bound thrombin as well as thrombin-induced platelet aggregation
Desvenlafaxine/PristiqIs a potent, selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that potentiates the neurotransmitter activity in the CNS
Dexlansoprazole/DexilantSelectively inhibits the parietal cell membrane enzyme (H+,K+)-ATPase, typically referred to as the proton pump, which blocks the final step of acid production
Dexmethylphenidate/FocalinThought to block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines in the extraneuronal space
Diazepam/ValiumThought to specifically interfere with interneuronal transmission & exert their pharmacological effect at the site of the GABA synapse, increasing the affinity of the receptor for GABA, thus reducing GABA turnover
Diclofenac/VoltarenInvolve inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase and COX-1 and COX-2 pathways

Section 4

Section 5

Section 6