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Tools for EBP

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anskorczewski12's version from 2016-10-26 23:28

Section

Question Answer
Define evidence-based practicethe integration of research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make the best clinical decision for one client
What are some of the barriers of EBP?1. time 2.access to published research 3.ability to find, understand, and clinically appraise research 4.limited research 5.attitudes of colleagues
5 "A"s of EBP1.ask 2.acquire 3.appraise 4.apply 5.assess
What type of question addresses facts about disease conditions and standard care for the conditions? Background question
Where are systematic reviews located?The Cochrane LIbrary, PEDRO, OTseeker, "clinical queries in Pubmed
Why are systematic reviews valuable?They provide a context to understanding findings from individual articles (most important), also comprehensive, aim to increase transparency and minimize bias (summarize large amount of info and make a big picture)
Cons of narrative reviews: lack transparency and reproducibility, more prone to biases
what are practice guidelines: a panel of experts provides opinions about best practice for their expertise (less reliable, but good, need to be updated)
What is the effect size and how is it shown in meta-analyses?help quantify the difference between two groups (emphasizes whether the size of difference is clinically important)--displayed in forest plots (which includes a pooled effect from all studies)
What type of research is: "Children's Perceptions of Play Experiences and Play Preferences" Either qualitative or descriptive (depending on whether they include data or not)
What type of research is: "What do Swedish OTs feel about research? A survey of perceptions, attitudes, intentions, and engagement": Descriptive--survey
type of questions for Qualitative research: "what is it like to be/ to have a certain experience..." (help understand what a phenomenon is, inform the process of change, deepen theoretical bases, describe how humans perceive experiences)
Qualitative research: What type of hypotheses/ manipulations? None
What methods of data collection are used in qualitative research: 1.participant observation (outsider or insider) 2.interview
What factors must be present for trustworthiness? 1.credibility (true picture) 2.transferability (transfer to other situations) 3.dependability (consistent data) 4.confirmability (limited bias)
Types of ways to increase trustworthiness (in qualitative research): transparency, triangulation, member-checking, external audit (review data for dependability), reflexivity
Two types of Quantitative research: Non-experimental, Experimental
What are the two types of non-experimental research: Descriptive, Exploratory
Types of descriptive research: developmental, normative (establishing norms), case studies (answer treatment effectiveness), survey/questionnaires (describe behaviors/beliefs regarding a topic)
What type of research is: "assessing the beliefs, and associated behaviours, regarding the health-risk of smoking the waterpipe" with a survey descriptive
What type of research is: "describing current practices for monitoring obesity of children with a surveydescriptive
What type of question does exploratory research ask: "is there an association between.."
What are the levels of the hierarchy of evidence (for experimental)Level I- systematic review/randomized control trial; 2-non-RCT/quazi-experimental, 3-one group pre/post test, 4-single subject, 5-case studies/expert opinion
which level of experimental research should you be concerned about order effect?Level 3: Repeated measures
What 3 factors does all Level 1 experimental research have: 1.random assignment 2.control group 3.manipulation
What is the difference between withdrawal design, multiple-baseline design, and alternating treatment design of single-subject design: withdrawal (ABAB), 2 (start at different times) 3 (ABAC)
what type of discriminative stats are used for Level 4 experimental research: 1.trend 2.slope 3.level
what type of experimental design has the least rigor?Level 5: case studies/expert opinion
The participants of a study know that they are being judged on their friendliness, so they are extra friendly during the study, what type of threat is this?Hawthorne effect/attention bias (internal validity threat)
During a study of the effectiveness of "weighted vests" participants also happened to start a new medication, what type of threat is this?Co-intervention bias (internal validity)
Types of threats to internal validity: hawthorne effect, maturation, experimenter bias, co-intervention bias, errors with data, no randomization, testing effect, attribution
During a study, many people from the control group drop out, while no one from the testing group dropped out, what type of threat is this?Attribution (internal validity)
What must drive the selection of method most appropriate for the research?The research question (data)
Common threats to external validity: reactivity and realism (if experimental conditions actually simulate reality)
as internal validity increases in research (by adding more controls), what happens to external validity: goes down
what type of variable is an IV that interacts with the actual IV one is studying?Moderating Variable
What type of error means that you said you found a significant relationship, when there is actually no significant relationship there: Type 1
what type of error means that you said there was no significant relationship, when there actually was a significant relationship between the variablesType 2
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