TOK terms

charlotteamannt's version from 2018-01-29 05:30

Section 1

Question Answer
Scientismbelief that science us the only way we can make sense of reality and discover the truth
Relativismbelief that there is no absolute truth and that what people believe to be true depends on their culture
Peer reviewevaluation of research by other qualified experts
Priority disputedispute about who was first to discover a particular law or come up with a particular theory
Rationalism: belief that reason rather than experience is the most important source of knowledge
Falsificationismbelief attributed to Karl Popper that science progresses by falsifying rather than verifying scientific hypotheses
Principle of simplicityrule which says that if we have two competing hypotheses which make the same predictions we should prefer the simpler one
Lawgeneral statement confirmed by experimental evidence which describes some feature of reality
Inductivismthe traditional conception of the scientific method, using inductive methods of reasoning
Hypothesistentative explanation for an observation or problem which,if it is to be scientific is testable
Pseudo-scienceset of beliefs which mimic the surface features of science without being genuinely scientific
Paradigmset of interrelated ideas for making sense of one or more aspects of reality
Empiricalsomething which can be verified by observation
Controlled experimentexperiment in which everything is held constant except for the variable under investigation
Conjectures and refutationsapproach to science advocated by Karl Popper, according to which scientists should come up with imaginative hypotheses which are open to falsification
Anomalyobservation that seems to contradict a generally accepted theory

Section 2

Question Answer
Gödel’s incompleteness theoremtheorem that suggests it is impossible to prove that a formal mathematical system is free from contradiction
Platonism: view that mathematical truths give us a priori insight into the structure of reality
Formalismthe belief that mathematical truths are true by definition
Empericismschool of thought which claims that all knowledge is ultimately based on sense perception
A posteriori knowledgeknowledge which can be justified only on the basis of experience, synthetic
A priori knowledgeknowledge which can be justified independently of experience, analytic
Synthetic propositionproposition that is not true by definition
Analytic propositionproposition that is true by definition