TOEFL Grammar, Word Forms

jacs30's version from 2017-04-27 02:08

Section 1

Question Answer
Nounare used to express people, places, physical objects, concepts, and activities.
Nouns are found in the following positionssubject, complement, object
Verbsare used to express the action or a state of being of the subject
Adjectivesare words that modify (describe) nouns.
Verbs must agree in...number and person with the subject
adjectives (form)...have no singular or plural forms
adjectives (position noun)they usually come before the noun they describe
adjectives (position, verb)after a verb that links the adjective to the subject.
Question: What kind of...?It's use to know if a word is an adjective.
adverbsmodify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. like adjectives, has no singular or plural form.
to determine if a word is and adverb...check wheter it can answer: how? when? where? how often?
adverbs and adjectives have the same form:deep, hard, late, low, early, high, leisurely, much, far, kindly, little, near, fast
pronounis a word that is used instead of a noun or noun phrase.
prepositionshow direction, location, or time, or introduce an object. They are usually followed by an object—a noun, noun phrase, or a pronoun.
If it's a gerundit'll be acting like a noun

Section 2

Question Answer
-er, -or and -eeare endings used for people
-ism and -asmare endings used for nouns
-ed is an ending for verbs and adjectives
-lyis an ending for most adverbs and some adjectives

Section 3

Question Answer
sentences are made up...clauses
What are clauses?are a group of words that includes a subject and a verb
Independent clausescontain a subject and a verb convey a complete idea.
type of sentences that contain independent clausessimple sentences, compound sentences and complex sentences.
Simple sentences are made up independent clause with one subject and one verb.
Compound sentences are made up of...two or more independent clauses that joined by a conjunction such as... and, but, nor, or yet.
Complex sentences are made up or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses that is an incomplete sentence. it needs to be connected to an independent clause.
dependent clauseshave a subject and a verb, but they don't form complete sentences. they must be connected to an independent clause.