Thyroid Disorders

yuxejexu's version from 2016-11-24 16:08

Section 1

Question Answer
enlarged thyroid glandgoiter
excessive T3 and or T4 serum concentrations thyrotoxicosis
presence of antibody that agonizes TSH receptors Graves Disease
high mortality thyroid disorder usually the result of another disorder that unmasks a preexisting but unidentified hyperthyroid state...includes hyperpyrexia and CNS dysfunctionThyroid Storm
disease including hypermetabolic, hyperactivity, thyrotoxicosis, thyroid storm and Graves' disease hyperthyroidism
hypermetabolic, hyperactivity of hyperthyroids signs and symptomsnervousness, anxiety, insomnia, tachcardia, hypertension, ophthalmopathy, tremor, heat intolerance, weight loss, increased appetite, reduced menstrual flow, goiter.
reduced menstrual flowoligomenorrhea

Section 2

Question Answer
rarely fatal but can cause significant morbidityhyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
symptoms of hypothyroidism lethargy, fatigue, cold-intolerance, weakness, hair loss, reproductive failure, goiter
clinical conditions with severe symptoms of hypothyroidismmyxedema
lethargy symptoms, myxedema, iodine deficiency, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, thyroidectom, radiation therapy are all related to?hypothyroidism
Hashimoto's thyroiditis chronic autoimmune thyroiditis
describe Hashimoto's thyroiditis chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, most often in women, usually diagnosed in the fifth decade and is progressive
thyroid removalthyroidectomy
an external cause of hypothyroidismradiation exposure (head and neck)

Section 3

Question Answer
TSH levels only marginally outside the normal reference ranges asymptomatic patientssubclinical thyroid disorders
enlarged thyroid may be indicative of hyper/hypothyroidism or no thyroid hormone disorders despite the anatomical disordergoiter
describe thyroid neoplasiarare and not aggressive
how does pregnancy effect thyroid disorder?can exacerbate it
name the drugs interfering with thyroid hormone activitiesSeizure drugs, NSAIDs, Amiodarone, iodine-based contrast dyes

Section 4

Question Answer
name for adrenal Disorderspheochromocytoma
cause of adrenal disorderscatecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors
describe pheochromocytomavery rare, most in adrenal medulla, some from sympathetic ganglion
tumors from sympathetic ganglion causing adrenal disordersparagangliomas
type of signs and symptoms of adrenal disorders (pheochromocytoma)paroxysymal signs and symptoms
clinical presentation of pheochromocytoma (adrenal disorders)hypertension, paroxysmal hypertension, tachycardia, pallor, palpitations, diaphoresis, anxiety
sudden recurrence or intensification of symptoms, such as a spasm or seizure. short, frequent paroxsymal

Section 5

Question Answer
testing for adrenal disorders in which a baseline cortisol and ACTH is obtained before ACTHACTH stimulation test
Primary Adrenal InsufficiencyAddison's Disease
describe Addison's disease failure of the adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids and mineralcorticoids
which type of adrenal insufficiency results in critically ill patientsacute
which type of adrenal insufficiency is most commonly due to autoimmune activities or tuberculosisChronic
signs and symptoms of chronic adrenal insufficiencyinsidious; fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, weight loss, depression or anorexia, hyperpigmentation
which type of adrenal insufficiency is from ACTH deficiencySecondary
which type of adrenal insufficiency is from lack of CRH from the hypothalamusTertiary
describe aldosterone insufficiencyrare; often corrected with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Section 6

Question Answer
Chronic exposure to excessive level of glucocorticoidshypercorticism
hypercortism that is ACTH dependent is from?1. Pituitary tumors 2. Cushing's syndrome 3. ectopic tumors
hhypercorticism that is ACTH independent is from?exogeneous glucocorticoids
signs and symptoms of hypercorticismreddish purple skin, easy bruising, proximal muscle weakness, unexplained osteoporosis, moon-faced
comorbidities of hypercorticismobesity, depression, diabetes, hypertension and menstrual irregularity
name for primary hyperaldosteronismConn's syndrome
hypertension and hypokalemia caused by adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomahyperaldosteronism-primary aldosteonism (conn's syndrome)
what is the most common form of secondary hypertension?Primary aldosteronism (conn's syndrome)

Section 7

Question Answer
hyperparathyroidism is most commonly due to?single parathyroid adenoma
kidney stones are a form of? and also called?Hyperparathyroidism..hypercalcemia
what is the actual result of hyperparathyroidismhigh calcium in blood and low phosphate
what is hypoparathyroidism most commonly caused by?lack of production from surgery or autoimmune disease or impaired secretion with profound hypomagnesemia
what is the actual result of hypoparathyroidism?low calcium and high phosphate in blood