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Three Estates

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rosesarered's version from 2018-05-09 10:49

Three Estates Lecture

Question Answer
Great Chain of Beinga strict hierarchical structure of all matter and life, thought in medieval Christianity to have been decreed by God. The chain starts with God and progresses downward to Angels, Emperors/Kings/Queens/Popes, High Nobility, Archbishops, Lesser Nobility, Bishops, Court Functionaries, Priests, Merchants/Tradesmen/Farmers, Shepherds, Beggars, Actors, Thieves/Pirates, Gypsies, Animals, Birds, Worms, Plants, Rocks
Feudal Systemcomes from same Latin term fidelity which means break your contract (kings>lords>knights>peasants)
Three Estates (know them)peasantry, nobility (knights), clergy (those who work, those who rule (fight), those who pray)
Secular Clergy(live in the world) priests, bishops, popes - minor orders (clerks, university students)
Regular Clergy(live by rules, regulations) monks (Benedictine, Cluniac, Cistercian) = cloistered - mendicants (Franciscans, Dominicans = itinerant nuns
Ora et Labora(prayer and work) - most signified by those who wrote, writing is a prayer or act of praying - refers to the Christian monastic practice of working and praying, generally associated with its use in the Rule of Saint Benedict
Triviumgrammar, rhetoric, dialectic (logic)
Quadriviumarithmetic, astronomy, geometry, music
Tres Riches Heuresvery rich book of hours
Secularmeans worldly, non-religious
Emperorsrulers over many lands, with their people not all necessarily even speaking the same language
Kings/queensrulers over smaller space usually with people from same cultural identity
Serfssomeone who is tied to the land despite change in ownership, type of slavery but the slavery is not attached to an individual but to a place - hard to get out of unless you pay the church to become part of the church
Shepherdsfree
Peasantseveryone who isn’t a knight or a king
Allegory of Good Governmentpeople behaving to the great chain of being
The King is the Body of the State“head of state” 1 Samuel 15-17 Although you were once small in your own eyes, did you not become the head of the tribes of Israel? Samuel is talking to Saul, who has been acting as a bad king.
Courtly Education*often based on Aristotle’s teaching of Alexander the Great, *reading is taught by “primers” (books of hours or psalters)
Knights expected tofurther excel at sports, politesse
memorize

Chapter 13

Question Answer
Medieval Monasticismlive separately from secular world, live in community with others, live by a Rule, live dedicated to serving God
Pilgrimagereligious journey to sacred place, spiritual journey
Important pilgrimage sites1. Jerusalem 2. Rome 3. Santiago de Compostela
Proximitasnearness, close vicinity, proximity
Why go on pilgrimage?proximity to saint, ask forgiveness for a sin, thanksgiving for a miracle granted, general devotion to a saint, hope for a specific miracle, punishment from a local secular authority, removal of social underclass from a town, religious “tourism”
What you experience on pilgrimage?other pilgrims, physical privations, mortification of the flesh = compassion with Christ, different parts of the world, different churches and saints along the way
How you dress, so that people know you’re a pilgrim?Cloak, Long brimmed hat, Staff, Small bag (too small to be practical, symbolizes reliance on God), Hood, Box of documents, Gourd for water/wine, SHELL=symbolic of the good works the pilgrim is expected to perform (looks like the back of your hand), Pilgrim badges (memorabilia to be purchased on the road), Relics (to be purchased on the road)
Rule of St. Benedictis a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot
Lombard bands (blind arches)(arcade- row of arches) decorative blind arcades on exterior of building
Articulated pier(see p.255 – I call this the compound pier)
Maiestas dominiChrist in Majesty, Christian image of Christ seated on a throne as ruler of the world, always seen frontally in the centre of the composition, and often flanked by other sacred figures
Santiago de Compostelafamous Catholic pilgrimage site, destination of Way of St. James, Ambulatory with radiating chapels, projecting chapels arranged radially around the ambulatory of a semicircular or polygonal liturgical east end
Elevationaisle/arcade level, gallery
Transverse archesa supporting arch that runs across the vault from side to side, divides bays
Relicsan object surviving from an earlier time, especially one of historical or sentimental interest, the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial, objects that connect modern worshippers to their past
Reliquaryshrine that houses or is the container for relics
Cluniac Ordera series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor. The movement began within the Benedictine order at Cluny Abbey, founded in 910 by William I, Duke of Aquitaine
Last Judgmentthe judgment of humankind expected in some religious traditions to take place at the end of the world, last day of the world when God will judge everyone who has died and decide whether they will go to Heaven or Hell, will occur after the resurrection of the dead and the reuniting of a person's soul with its own physical body
Apocalypsethe complete final destruction of the world, especially as described in the biblical book of Revelation
Elucidarium by Honorius of Autunhandbook for lower clergy, an encyclopedic work about medieval Christian theology and folk belief, originally written in the late 11th century by Honorius Augustodunensis
Sedes sapientiaeThrone of Wisdom
Cistercian Orderreligious order of monks and nuns - also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux or as White Monks in reference to robes they wore not similar to the black ones worn by Benedictine monks - key observance to Rule of St. Benedict, simplicity, self-sufficiency, academic pursuits
Notre DameOur Lady
cathedralseat/throne of the bishop
Bernard of Clairvaux (Apologia)De Consideratione “What is God? He is length, width, height and depth.” a French abbot and a major leader in the reform of Benedictine monasticism that caused the formation of the Cistercian order "Doctor of the Church"
Portaltympanum, voussoir, archivolt, trumeau, jamb, lintel - door, entrance, the whole architectural composition surrounding and including the doorways and porches of a church
Cloisteropen central courtyard space, forum - stone vaults made of split stone - aesthetic is thick walls and stone, minimalist - a covered walk in a convent, monastery, college, or cathedral, typically with a wall on one side and a colonnade open to a quadrangle on the other
Cheveta semicircular or polygonal east end of a church, esp a French Gothic church, often with a number of attached apses - everything from transcept towards apse, considered one body -
Echelon chapelssemicircular “growths” out of transcept (minimalist aesthetic)
Lantern towertower that gives light (crossing tower) - tall construction above the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church, with openings through which light from outside can shine down to the crossing
Pilaster stripsstrips that almost create an archway on outside of wall, thickening of brick and stone structure but purely decorative
Compound piers (articulated pier)pier is square, column is spherical - a compound pier adds several layers
Barrel vaultvault that runs the length of a space with staves in arches (looks like a keg)
Bayscube or square space that exists between each of the transverse arches
Ashlar masonrycut or shaped stone
Pilastersengaged piers
memorize

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