Therio- The Dog 1

wilsbach's version from 2015-11-13 03:32

BSE conditions 1

Question Answer
3 indications for a BSE in a dog?Certification of a breeding male, Semen collection for AI/Freezing, History of infertility
Impotentia coendi means?unable to copulate
Impotentia generandi means?Inability to generate spermatozoa
examples of Impotentia coendi?Poor libido, Inability to mount, Failure of penile extrusion, Failure of intromission
examples of Impotentia generandi?Conditions of the testes, Conditions of the epididymis, Conditions of the accessory sex glands
what condition might you want to check for which would affect prepitual conformation?Hypospadia
what penile conditions might you look for on a BSE?Paraphimosis/Phimosis, Balanoposthitis, Urethral prolapse, # of os penis, TVT
what is Hypospadia?Abnormal termination of penile urethra along the ventral surface of the penis, Due to incomplete fusion of the median raphe of the penis, prepuce and/or scrotum
hypospadia often occurs concurrently with...?cryptorchidism, shortening of the penis, deficient development of ventral prepuce or ventral deviation of the penis
4 classifications of hypospadia?Glandular, penile, scrotal, perineal
what are the most common presenting complaints for a dog with hypospadia?Presenting complaint depends on Location, but Usually urinary incontinence with Associated dermatitis
how do you tx penile hypospadia?Amputation of penis & prepuce to level of urethral opening
how do you tx Scrotal & Perineal hypospadia?Complete amputation of penis & urethrostomy
what procedure is recc you do if you are tx the hypospadia?castrate- inherited condition
what is Paraphimosis?Inability to retract the erect or non-erect protruded penis back into the preputial sheath
what are some causes of paraphimosis?Sexual arousal; neurological disease; fx of os penis; balanoposthitis; constriction of preputial opening (eg. Hair ring; swelling of penis eg. Trauma, neoplasia)
Paraphimosis results in what problems?Ischemia & drying, Progressively compromised
tx of Paraphimosis?Lubricate & attempt to replace, Retain with purse-string?, Castration usually *not effective, May need to surgically enlarge preputial opening, May need to due penile amputation with urethrostomy
what is Phimosis?Inability to protrude penis from prepuce
causes of phimosis?Maybe congenital eg. intersex dogs; acquired due to a stricture of the preputial orifice
tx of phimosis?Surgical enlargement of preputial opening
what is Balanoposthitis?balano= Inflammation of the glans penis. posthitis= Inflammation of the preutial mucosa
what usually causes balanoposthitis?Usually opportunistic pathogens (Eg. E. coli) Or viruses (Eg. Herpes virus (CHV))
clinical signs of balanoposthitis?Purulent to sanguinopurulent preputial discharge, Mucosa hyperemic, Vesicles with CHV
how do you tx balanoposthitis?Systemic and/or topical antimicrobials.... Flushing of prepuce with warm water/saline?
Prolapse of distal urethra can be caused by...(2)(1) Idiopathic (2) Secondary to sexual excitement or urethral infection
Clinical signs of prolapse of distal urethra?Bleeding from preputial opening, Stranguria, Red “pea” at tip of penis
tx of prolapse of distal urethra?Surgical replacement of prolapsed tissue with urethropexy (use glass rod to push urethra back in, fix with suture material)
clinical signs of fx of os penis?Ventral deviation of penis, Dysuria and hematuria, Pain, Crepitus
tx of fx of os penis?Depends on type of fracture...Closed or open reduction
CS of TVT?Clinical signs vary depending on site of tumor... Usually present with serosanguinous preputial discharge. May get mets to nasal & oral mucosa
where do TVTs like to metastasize to?May get mets to nasal & oral mucosa
how does TVT look cytologically?
You are presented with a 4 yr old pothound with a serosanguinous preputial discharge. On examination of the penis you find the following. What is the most appropriate treatment in this case? this is TVT so use vinCriSTinE

conditions 2 (mostly balls and scrotum)

Question Answer
4 things youre looking for with the scrotum on a BSE?Dermatitis, Herniation, Hydrocoele, Neoplasia
4 things youre looking for with the testes on a BSE?Cryptorchidism, Orchitis, Neoplasia, Torsion of the spermatic cord
Infectious diseases which might cause scrotal dermatitis?B. canis; Rocky mountain spotted fever
Autoimmune disorders which might cause scrotal dermatitis?Discoid lupus; Pemphigus erythematosus
3 pathogenesis reasons there might be scrotal dermatitis?Infectious diseases, Autoimmune disorders, Contact dermatitis
what is the big concern with scrotal dermatitis?Inflammation of scrotum--> inc intrascrotal T° --> dec fertility
clinical signs of scrotal herniation?Fluctuant to firm swelling in the scrotum, May or may not be reducible back through inguinal canal, May get entrapment & strangulation of herniated tissues---> vomiting, anorexia, scrotal pain
what is a Hydrocoele?Collection of fluid in vaginal tunic. Composition varies with underlying cause (Eg. Hematocoele)
causes of a hydrocele?Idiopathic, Inguinal hernia, Infection, Trauma, Testicular torsion
3 most common SCROTAL neoplasias?Squamous cell carcinoma, Melanoma, Mast Cell Tumor
why does Cryptorchidism happen?Sex-linked autosomal recessive trait, Gene can be carried by male or female
what is cryptorchidism? (time frame)Developmental defect in which descent of the testes does not occur within 6 months
why do we care that it takes longer than 6mo for the balls to drop?Closure of inguinal ring at 6mo
In most dogs, testes descended by _(time)_ after birth10 days
are cyrptorchids usually uni or bilateral?usu UNI
what is the mechanism by which the testes descend?gubernaculum pulls balls from kidneys down to scrotum
explain how the vaginal tunic comes about?testes has layer of peritneum, then pushes through peritoneum again, so then 2 layers of peritoneum
what can and cant cryptorchid testes do?Retained testes are capable of steroidogenesis but not spermatogenesis
why don't we want to keep cryptorchid testes in, even if they can't make sperm to get bitches pregnant?Retained testis predisposed to neoplasia (10x more likely) & testicular torsion
If you are trying to ID a cryptorchid testicle with US, what do you try to look for?Mediastinum testis (lighter line in the middle)
what are some ways to dx cryptorchid?Visual inspection, Careful palpation, Palpation of prostate (bilateral), Ultrasound, GnRH stimulation test (bilateral), FSH & LH levels
what would FSH & LH levels be like in a cryptorchid?would be increased if if cryptorchid prolly lower
what are the two pathgenesises which can lead to orchitis?(1) infection (2) autoimmune
examples of INFECTIOUS causes of orchitis?Retrograde from prostate or Lower URT, Hematogenous eg. B. canis, Directly through penetrating wound
examples of AUTOIMMUNE causes of orchitis?Often secondary to infection / inflammation, Damage to blood-testis barrier
how does orchitis present ACUTELY?Swelling & pain, May also get systemic signs eg. Pyrexia, hindlimb lameness, purulent preputial discharge
how does orchitis present CHRONICALLY?Non-painful enlargement of testis, Testes soft on palpation or maybe fibrotic, Often get atrophy of unaffected testis
** if you see a dog with scrotal enlargement, what should you automatically do?All dogs with scrotal enlargement should be tested for Brucellosis
should you do FNA for dx of orchitis?last resort-- wouldnt do if orchitis with infectious cause (tracking of infection) and might get autoimmune rxn against testis. so she really wouldnt do one esp if orchitis (if testicular degeneration, could be a last ditch hope--sterility due to autoimmune reaction still likely)
how does orchitis look like on US?Inflammation= patchy hypoechoic areas, looks mottled and there is a loss of the mediasteinum testes
what should tx for orchitis be like?try antiinflammatories and abx, but after a day or so, should do hemi-orchidectomy if valuable breeding, if not just castrate...and make sure doesnt have brucella
what is brucellosis caused by?Brucella canis, a Non-motile, gram-negative coccobacillus
how can brucella be transmitted?Ingestion, Inhalation, Venereally
how do animals infected with brucella shed it?Infected animals shed organism in urine, semen, saliva and nasal secretions
what are the major clinical signs of brucella in MALE dogS?****Epididymitis!, *Orchitis, Scrotal dermatitis, Oligozoospermia, Uveitis, meningitis, diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, cystitis and pyogranulomatous dermatitis
how do you control brucella?Castration, Housed away from susceptible animals and immunocompromised humans, Intermittent antibiotic therapy helps to decrease shedding
what are 2 major risk factors for testicular neoplasia?Older animals, and Retained testes
3 most common types of testicular neoplasia? (Which is the most common?)Sertoli Cell Tumor!!!!! (most common), Seminoma, Interstitial/Leydig Cell Tumor
what are the clinical signs of testicular neoplasia?Testicular enlargement without pain, May have signs of paraneoplastic syndrome with some tumors
what is the most common type of testicular tumor in retained testes?sertoli cell
how malig is sertoli cell tumor? how does it often present?Low malignancy, One testis usually grossly enlarged and the other atrophic (sertoli single)
does sertoli cell tumor have an associated paraneoplasic syndrome?Commonly associated with feminizing paraneoplastic syndrome due to estrogen secretion
which tumor has feminizing paraneoplastic syndrome? why? what does it present like?sertoli cell tumor (technically the other two do also). Because the tumor secretes estrogen. you will see.... pancytopenia (Nonregenerative anemia, pale mm, leukopenia, petechiation, epistaxis...remember estrogen suppresses bone marrow), Bilaterally symmetrical alopecia, Hyperpigmentation of inguinal skin, Gynecomastia, Pendulous preputial sheath
what is a seminoma? what is its malignancy like?Tumor of germ cells within testes, Low malignancy
does seminoma have an associated paraneoplastic syndrome?May be associated with feminizing paraneoplastic syndrome
which testicular neoplasia is more common in SCROTAL testes?Interstitial/Leydig Cell Tumor
what is a Interstitial/Leydig Cell Tumor? what is its malignancy like?Usually small and discrete and may not be detected clinically with low malig.
does interstitial/leydig cell tumor have an associated paraneoplastic syndrome?yes-- (1) Hyperestrogenism (2) Hypertestosteronism
which tumor of the testes can cause hypertestosteronism, and how is this characterized?interstitial/leydig cells can get this (theyre the cells that make T) and you will see Prostate disease; perianal adenoma; perianal and tail gland hyperplasia, perineal hernia
is Torsion of the Spermatic Cord more common in retained or testicular testes?RETAINED
clinical signs of torsion of the spermatic cord?Acute abdomen (Eg. Anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, pyrexia) and Swelling of the scrotum – may or may not be painful
how would torsion of the spermatic cord appear on U/S?Decreased echogenicity (darker color), Decreased blood flow (Doppler)

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