Therio Quiz 1

moonlup's version from 2017-09-15 06:28

Section 1

Question Answer
When does the endometrium produce PGF?16-17 days, progesterone stops by day 18
Pregnancy duration in cattle280d
What does PGF do in the normal cycle?lyses the CL, resulting in a reduction of progesterone which ends diestrus
Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy is...process by which conceptus signals its presence to maternal system and prolongs CL
When is ovulation?~24h post estrus/LH peak
When is vaginal discharge? When is bleeding?Estrus (1st 12 hours). Bleeding starts Day 2.
When is the CL unresponsive to PGF?during metestrus (estrus to day 5) Basically the first 5 days of the cycle
What normally produces PGF?endometrium around day 16-17 (ends diestrus on day 18)
How does the conceptus achieve Maternal Recognition?elongates to filamentous form to contact entire endometrium and produces IFN-tau around day 15-16
What is the source, size, and role of PGF?Uterus/endometrium, small, lyses CL thereby ending output of progesterone
What is the source, size, and role of LH?Pituitary, big, triggers ovulation and CL formation
What is the source, size, and role of progesterone?CL & placenta, small, maintains pregnancy
What is the source, size, and role of estrogen?Ovary/Fetal Adrenals, small, triggers LH surge

Section 2

Question Answer
What drives testosterone production?LH
What drives spermatogenesis?testosterone, LH, FSH
What is a zygote?Day 1-2 conceptus
What is a morula?Day 3-4 conceptus, bundle of cells
What is a blastocyte?Day 5 conceptus, hollow bundle of cells
What is an embryo?up to Day 42 conceptus
What is a fetus?Day 42 onwards
Spermiogenesis happens whereseminiferous tubules (spermatids to spermatozoa)
Spermiogenesis processchromosomes condense, golgi form acrosome, mitochondria gather and flagella forms opposite acrosome
Spermiationrelease of spermatozoa from seminiferous tubules to epididymis
What happens to sperm in the epididymis?final maturation evidenced by proximal cytoplasmic droplet becoming distal cytoplasmic droplet (which is pinched off during ejaculation)
What triggers resumption of meiosis I?ovulation, ie LH surge, resulting in Primary --> Secondary oocytes and PB1
What triggers meiosis II?fertilization, resulting in zygote and PB2
Describe fertilizationAcrosome Rxn allows sperm penetration into Zona Pelucida and inner acrosome membrane contacts oocyte. These membranes fuse allowing spermatozoan to enter oocyte. Oocyte releases cortical granules, blocking further sperm (polyspermy).

Section 3

Question Answer
What are the 4 definitive signs of pregnancy?Fetus, Amniotic Vesicle, Fetal Membrane Slip, Placentomes
When can you detect a fetus?2-4.5m then after 6m
What is and when can you detect amniotic vesicle?D30-65, egg shaped mobile structure that feels like a bar of soap slipping through your hand
What is and when can you detect FMS?D35-90, grasp whole horn and feel allantochorionic membrane slip
What are placentomes?structure formed by caruncles and cotyledons
When can you detect placentomes?D70 onward (but easier at D120)
How large is the fetus and when?D60 mouse, D90 Rat, D120 small cat, D150 large cat, D180 beagle dog
When can you detect arterial fremitus?Pregnant side D70 onward, non pregnant side D180

Section 4

Question Answer
Animals with diffuse placentashorses, pigs
Animals with cotyledonary placentasruminants
Animals with zonary placentascarnivores
Chorion vs Amnion appearencered and rough vs smooth and white
Where do cotyledons develop?At specific sites, ie where the caruncles are. 4 lines of ~15 caruncles in each horn and almost all are used
When can PGF terminate pregnancy?D5-150 1-2 shots and D255-Term(parturition), D150-255 with glucocorticoid
When can glucocorticoids terminate pregnancy?D150-255 with PGF, D255-Term(parturition)
When does CL provide progesterone?D1-150 and D250-term
When does placenta provide progesterone?D150-D250
When can estrogen terminate pregnancy?D1-150, but questionable efficacy
When can oxytocin terminate pregnancy?D2-7, but no longer used
Parturition via long acting steroids1 month prior to due date, low RP, high calf mortality (insoluble dexamethasone)
Parturition via short acting steroids2 weeks prior to due date, high RP, low calf mortality (soluble dexamethasone)
Parturition via PGF2 days prior to due date, high RP, low calf mortality

Section 5

Question Answer
How do you treat mummification?PGF
How do you treat maceration?If you don't slaughter, can try PGF but fertility is in question
Hydrops allantoisMassive abdomen due to fluid build up in allantois, dangerous to cow, unknown cause, Palp/US Dx, Culling and salvage recc. Common in beefalo and IVF and cloning.
Hydrops amniiExcess fluid in amnion due to abnormal fetus, Palp/US Dx, let go to term and cows recover normal fertility
Dx of fetal torsionvaginal exam, rectal palp.
Tx of fetal torsionmanual detorsion during parturition, rolling cow, C-section
When does vaginal prolapse tend to happen?Late gestation prior to calving, usually beef breeds
Degrees of vaginal prolapse1: intermittent, 2: continuous vagina, 3: continuous vagina & cervix, 4: 3 with lacerations/necrosis
Buhner's methodEpidural, big ass needle to sew it up
Prolapse pinspins that constrict the vulva
Button techniquebolts vagina to pelvic wall, washer inside and outside on skin

Section 6

Question Answer
Current protocol for RPCut it short and wait for rest to fall out, even if it takes a week or more
Causes of RPDystocia, stress, management, disease
When does uterine prolapse happen?after parturition, especially if dystocia
What happens in uterine prolapse?pregnant horn everts, usually within 12 hours
Complications of uterine prolapsetrauma, blood vessel rupture, contamination, shock, endotoxins, death
Tx of Uterine prolapseEpidural, elevation, reduce edema (sugar), treat hypocalcemia, salvage and cull
Puerpueral metritis CSacute (2-3wks post partum), febrile, foul-smelling discharge, reduced milk in dairy
What risks metritis?RP and dystocia
Dx of metritisTemp, rectal palp, concurrent disease
Tx of metritis with AbxNo approved intrauterine Abx in US, Ceftiofur or Oxytetracycline okay, but remember withdrawal periods
Tx of metritis besides Abxflushing, anti-inflamm. (withdrawals), oxytocin/PGF, self-cure if systemic health okay
Metritis prognosisReduced production and reproduction
What is metritis? deep infectious damage to uterine wall with foul smelling and watery discharge
What is endometritis?Superficial infection/inflammation of uterine wall/endometrium. Can be clinical or subclinical
Dx clinical endometritispurulent uterine discharge after 21 days or mucopurulent discharge after 26 days
Dx subclinical endometritis >18% PMN on cytology from D21-33, or >10% from D34-47
Bacteria of metritisTrueperella, E. coli, Fusobacterium, Prevotella
Bacteria of endometritisTruperella alone or with Fusobacterium, or E. coli
Tx of endometritisNo Abx approved. PGF can help but may not restore fertility. Self-cure as not life threatening.
Why does pyometra happen?uterus can't release PGF due to pus, CL persists, resulting in anestrus (Dx)
How does PGF help pyometra?lyses CL and brings cow out of anestrus
What causes pyometra?Dairy: RP, dystocia, etc. Beef: tritrichomonas, campylobacter
What is Cystic Ovarian Disease?presence of follicle over 2.5cm due to failure of ovulation and lutenization
What happens in COD?anestrus usually, but sometimes constant estrus or erratic estrus
Why are dairy cows more prone to COD than beef?thought to be tied to high milk production
Tx CODGnRH, Prostaglandin if lutenized, Timed AI protocols
How does timed AI protocols treat COD?1 Injxn GnRH induces ovulation OR luteinization (even if high progesterone) and induces new follicular wave. 7 days later, give shot of PGF to cz luteolysis. 2 days later, inject another GnRH, which induces ovulation.