Therio- Newborn Foal and the Placenta

wilsbach's version from 2015-11-15 07:07


Question Answer
what is the rule of 1,2,3?Foal should stand within 1 h (30 mins+), Foal should drink within 2 h, Fetal membranes should be passed within 3 h
how quickly should the foal stand?within 1 hour (30min+)
how quickly should the foal drink?within 2h
how quickly should the fetal membranes be passed?w/in 3hr
how quickly do you need to check IgG levels post-foaling?8-12hrs post foaling
what are three ways to check the igG levels post-foaling?(1) Glutaraldehyde coagulation test (2) IDEXX Snap test (3) Zinc sulphate turbidity test [THESE ARE SERUM TESTS]
what igG levels from tests imply there was a failure of passive transfer?<400mg/dL
what IgG levels from tests imply there was a PARTIAL failure of passive transfer?400-800mg/dL
what will the IgG levels be like if there was adequate transfer of IgG, thus adequate protection?>800mg/dL
how do you perform the Glutaraldehyde Coagulation test?(1) 0.05mls of 10% Glutaraldehyde solution + 0.5mls foal serum (2) Mix immediately and incubate at room temperature (3) Should clot within 10 mins
what are the results of the Glutaraldehyde Coagulation test which imply normal result, adequate transfer, partial failure of passive transfer, or failure of passive transfer?normally, should clot within 10 min. If <5min, there are >800mg/dL (this is adequate protection), if it takes >10min, then there are 400-800mg/dL (this is a partial failure of passive transfer). If it takes >30min, and it is barely clotted, that is a full-blow FPT
what do the results of the SNAP test mean for testing the foal's IgG levels at 8-12hr post-foaling?
how is the Zn turbidity test done?Solution of ZnSO4 (25mg/100ml) in a clear glass tube to which 0.1ml of serum added--> Causes cloudiness that can be compared to a known positive control. IDEALLY, shouldn’t be able to read newsprint through the tube = sufficient passive transfer (Not quantitative)
which test for failure of passive transfer (FPT) is NOT quantitative?Zn turbidity test
why do we need to check the foal's IgG Abs so soon after foaling? (8-12hr)because there is GUT closure where the foal's gut is no longer permeable to absorbing mom's Abs. So if we catch it before gut closure, we can tube feed them colostrum (which was collected and stored previously)
what happens if you don't notice there was a failure of passive transfer AFTER gut closure has occurred?(closure usually after 24 hours) you would need to give hyperimmune plasma transfer, which is expensive and May not be the antibodies foal needs
what is Foal Heat Diarrhoea? Why is it called "foal heat" diarrhea?Occurs at +/- same time that mare goes through “foal heat” (it isn't actually related to the mom's foal heat in any way).
why does foal heat diarrhea happen?Thought to be bc change over of gut bacteria as foal matures

Examination of the placenta

Question Answer
Why do we want to examine the placenta?Early warning system that may indicate a compromised foal
Any pieces remaining in utero might indicate...Predisposed mare to metritis, laminitis, etc….
two types of placentitis (location) you might want to look for?(1) Ascending @ cervical star (2) Haematogenous @ umbilical attachment
what might indicate stress in utero?Meconium staining
what might avillous areas indicate?Twins? Endometrial cysts/fibrosis
#1 safety rule when examining placenta...WEAR GLOVES!
why do you want to weigh the placenta?Normal weight of a TB placenta= +/- 6kg or 11% of foal’s body weight....more or less may indicate a problem
what is the normal weight of a TB placenta?+/- 6kg or 11% of foal’s body weight
what weight of a placenta might indicate edema and inflammation?>8kgs past foal's body weight (normal is +/- 6kg or 11% of foal’s body weight)
what weight of a placenta might indicate inadequate placentation?<5kgs of foal's body weight (normal is +/- 6kg or 11% of foal’s body weight)
how should you lay out the placenta to examine it?Lay placenta out in an F-shape (or Y-shape)
when you have laid out the placenta to examine it, what does the preg horn look like versus the non-preg horn?Pregnant (larger) horn - always some edema at tip of horn. Non- pregnant horn is smaller
what is the cervical star?portion of the PLACENTA in contact with cervix & will be pale & devoid of velvety red microcotylendons
how will the surface of the placenta present when you are examining it, and why?“inside out” with white chorioallantoic surface uppermost (as you found it as foal “pulls” placenta inside out as it’s born)
you should check for tears in the placenta-- where SHOULD it tear? what happens if it doesnt tear where it is supposed to?SHOULD tear at the cervical star. If it ruptured anywhere else but there, it is a "red bag delivery" and is considered an EMERGENCY as the foal is possibly compromised. Most commonly tears @ tip of pregnant horn
you should always make sure the torn edges of the placenta match up, because...otherwise may be some placental remnants in utero
you should check the placenta for hemorrhage, because...hemorrhage indicates tear happened while placenta was still perfused ie. In utero. No hemorrhage indicates tear was probably post partum
is this normal? nope, this is a red bag delivery, an emergency!!
what does it mean if you are looking at the placenta and both horns look about the same, and you can't tell which one was the pregnant horn?If horns appear small & body appears large, may have been a “body pregnancy” in which case, foal may be compromised
what are the normal structures seen in the umbilicus? (you should check for them)2 umbilical aa, 1 umbilical v, and the urachus
what is the normal length of an umbilical cord? why don't you want it too long?Normal 36- 83cm. (14-32 inches). Excessive length predisposes to torsion of umbilicus
are twists in the umbilicus normal? what is abnormal?5-6 twists normal. Excessive twisting can result in fetal death in utero
Meconium staining indicates..intrapartal stress--> might mean Foal may be compromised, Possible Aspiration of meconium in utero?
what is the chorionic surface?the portion of the fetal membranes in contact with mare’s endometrium
the chorionic surface should look like? what abnormalities should you be looking for?Red, “velvety” appearance.... Check for avillous areas, Check for placentitis
what are the normal avillous areas of the placenta? (4)(1) cervical star (2) Endometrial cups (3) Oviductal papilla (where oviduct joins uterine horn) (4) some folds present
what are the ABnormal avillous areas of the placenta? (3)(1) Twin placentas (2) Areas of endometrial fibrosis (3) Large endometrial cysts
what do endometrial cups look like?avillous areas that are normal
what does the placenta look like if there were twins?avillous area on placenta
what does ascending placentitis look like when coming from the cervical star?
what does hematogenous placentitits look like?
incidental findings--> what are Hippomanes?Brown, “liver-like” material, which is Probably deposits from fetal urine & cells
what are allantoic pouches? are they pathological?just incidental findings, not pathological, they are Pedunculated structures attached to chorioallantois on the allantois side, usually at junction with amnion
Examine the following teasing record. Was the covering performed on the 24 April successful? foaled on feb 9th then had foal heat. Then off for 6 weeks, then 1s are transitional. Followed by 10 days of progesterone- then came into estrus and gave chorilon and bred on 24th and then came into estrus again- so covering by stallion not successful
A mare is to be inseminated with fresh semen. You perform an ultrasound examination and find the following structure on the ovary. Which of the following drugs could you give to ensure she ovulates within the next 36h? hCG (pic is a follicle)
You examine a mare for pregnancy and find the following. How far along in gestation is the mare? about 30d (ying yang)
T or F- The endometrial cups secrete hCGF
T or F- The endometrial cups result in resurgence of the primary CLT
T or F- The endometrial cups have an FSH-like effect in the mareF
T or F- The endometrial cups maintain pregnancy in the mareT

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