Therio - Mare Repro Exam

drraythe's version from 2017-09-10 04:05

Thoroughbred weird stuff/ the repro exam

Question Answer
Northern vs southern hemisphere birthdays for thoroughbreds?No matter what, northern hemisphere is Jan 1 & southern is Aug 1-- want foals born as close as possible to these dates so they are grown as much as they can when they start to race (bc a foal born on Dec 31 → then it's Jan 1st, now it's a "yr" old)
How old are the thoroughbreds when they start racing?(Bc of fixed bdays) Horses race as 2/3yr olds
How long is horse gestation, what is the implication for management of preg of thoroughbred mares?11mo!! So need to get her preg ASAP for the next yrs racing horses to be born
What repro method isnt allowed in TBs?NO AI ALLOWED
Why is AI not allowed in TBs?To maintain worth of TB stallions- high demand for top stallions → limited supply → high stud fees
About how many mares can a TB stallion cover in a season?+/- 100
What is "reinforcement breeding"?So AI isnt allowed, but RB is...this is where they are allowed to scoop up any backflow of semen from mares tract, add extender, put in AI pipette & inseminate into uterus
What is foal heat? When does it occur?The 1st post-partum estrus, it is usu 6-9d post-foaling
What is "foal heat diarrhea" & how are they related?Only related in time table-- about 6-9d post foaling is when the mare goes into foal heat, & around the same time the foal's gut is feeling the effects of bacterial colonization → diarrhea
If a mare shows HEAT <10d post-partum, what should you do & why?Better to either short cycle (PGF2α) or delay onset of estrus (P4) so that uterus has a chance to involute before arrival of conceptus
How quickly do you wanna get a mare preg after she has foaled?W/in a mo of foaling down
4 indications for a repro exam of the mare?(1) Routine exam during breeding mgmt
(2) Preg Dx (3) problem mare workup
(4) Pre-purch exam
What are they looking at w/ a routine exam for breeding mgmt?Monitor follicular growth
Record ovulation
Describe pathology
W/ the repro exam, what are the 4 main parts of it?(1) FOR THE LOVE OF GOD, ID THE HORSE. Can use passport or microchip
(2) Repro Hx
(3) General clinical exam
(4) Specific genital exam
What things are you looking at during the general clinical exam part of the repro exam?Go nose-to-tail so you don't forget anything, assess physical condition, physical exam to esp look at vital signs & musculoskeletal system
During the repro Hx portion of the repro exam, you want to see records of what stuff, & what should you be on the lookout for?Want to see records on mare's estrous cycles, estrous BHs, & teasing records → these can point out probs such as chromosomal abnormalities or uterine Infxns. YOU WANT TO LOOK FOR PATTERNS IN REPRO RECORDS
What is a maiden mare? What are the repro implications of a maiden mare?1 that has never foaled before, generally good chance of conception EXCEPT older maiden "career" mares (10+yrs)
What is a barren mare? Breeding implications of a barren mare?Hasn't conceived, may be a repro prob. *Check mgmt, esp breeding mgmt
How are horses chosen for repro stuff usu?Chosen for racing/jumping/etc abilities, NOT for their repro potential
What is so incredibly important to look at w/ your visual inspection of the perineum & vulva?CONFORMATION IS SUPER IMPORTANT (don't want wind suckers/ sunken vags)
4 types of lesions you should be looking for in the area of the perineum & vulva?(1) Neoplastic (GREY HORSES & MELANOMA)
(2) Inflammatory/infectious
(3) Surgical
(4) Traumatic (old foaling injuries?)
Poor conformation of the perineum/vagina usually happens in what 2 populations of horses?(1) Mares in poor BCS
(2) Older broodmares
Why do we not like a conformation w/ an elevated tail head/cranially sloped repro tract?If they have an elevated tail head, they may have a cr sloped repro tract...this allows urine to pool & exposes repro tract to air, urine & feces. → Chronic infxn of repro tract leading to poor fertility
What problem are we worried about w/ GREY mares & their vulva/perineum?NEOPLASIA-- specifically melanoma
Describe the ideal conformation of the perineum & vulva?Vulva positioned vertically w/ vulva lips forming a tight seal *vulva forms 1st seal protecting repro tract!
How does an intersexed horses' vulva & perineum appear?Inc ano-vaginal distance, enlarged clitoris
What are the 3 anatomical seals that protect the repro tract?(1) Vulva
(2) Vestibulo-vaginal sphincter
(3) Cervix
What is going on w/ pneumovagina?If the vulva gapes or gentle separation results in aspiration of air = pneumovagina
Why don't we like pneumovagina?Allows air & feces access to the vagina, & exposes vag/cervix/uterus to infxn. (Intrauterine Infxn esp bacterial Endometritis is 1 of the major probs in broodmares).
What is a problem associated w/ conformation of broodmares, & how can it be fixed?Intrauterine Infxn esp bacterial Endometritis is 1 of the major probs in broodmares -- usually due to poor conformation & poor BCS...can be fixed w/ Caslick's operation
What is Caslick's index?Length of vulva above ischial arch (cm) X angle of declination away from the vertical
Which result of the Caslick’s index would indicate that the mare is most likely frequently suffering from pneumo/urovagina? If the mare gets the score, what should you do?Greater than or equal to 100 means they frequently suffer from uro/pneumovagina, & they may need Caslick's procedure/operation post-breeding/AI to conceive & maintain pregnancy
Pic to show side view of relation of length of vulva above ischial arch for Caslick’s index
How do you perform Caslick's procedure?(1) Ring block w/ local anesthetics SQ in vulvar mucosa
(2) Suture w/ simple continuous technique starting dorsal & move ventral until about 2 fingers worth of space from ventral commissure, stop there (allows room for urination)
How can you check how normal the vestibulo-vaginal sphincter is?Windsucker test
What is the windsucker test testing for & how is it performed?Testing the patency of the vestibulo-vaginal gently pull the vulva lips apart → air should be sucked in once seal is broken
For a rectal exam of repro tract, how is tone of tract affected by estrogen/progesterone?Estrogen = Dec tone
Progesterone = Inc tone
Edema of uterus is scored on a scale of what to what & is expected when in the cycle?0-3, none in an/die but should be doughy in estrus
When (time units) can you Dx preg w/ rectal palpation? U/S?Rectal palpation is greater than or equal to 21d, ultrasound is 12d
How can you try to find the ovaries on rectal palpation?At 10 & 2 o’clock just cr to pelvic brim
Rectal palpation → how big will the ovary feel when the horse is in anestrus?<4cm in any direction
What shape will the ovary feel like, & why?Bean shaped, bc of ovulation fossa
*Where do follicle ovulate from on the ovary of a mare?ALL from the ovulation fossa
What can & cant you palpate on a mares ovary from a rectal palpation?Bc medulla on outside, can only palpate follicles (& maybe a CH), NOT the CLs. It is often painful for the mare if you palpate a large follicle & she may kick or become restless
Aside from outside of the body, how else can you U/S the mares repro tract?TRANSRECTAL U/S
What are you looking for when assessing the echotexture of the uterus w/ transrectal US?Looking for signs of edema
If you see endometrial cysts on your transrectal US of the can they present? What must you do? What is a DDx for them?Can be single or mult, & can range in size, & are often irreg in shape. Need to map them out...DDX: pregnancy
What does uterine edema look like w/ transrectal US & when/why does it happen?Happens during estrus due to Inc estrogen. Often looks like "wagon wheel" or "orange slices"
What does it look like when there is no uterine edema on transrectal US? When does this happen?No edema when in die/anestrus, so there is uniform echotexture (under influence of progesterone)
4 possible reasons to see free intrauterine fluid on transrectal U/S?(1) Endometritis
(2) Post-breeding Endometritis
(3) Pyometra
(4) Uterine gland pathology
Why do we not want free intrauterine fluid?It is a hostile environment for the conceptus
What would an endometrial cyst look like on U/S?
If you are going to do a pervaginum procedure, how should you prepare for it?Must clean the perineum extremely well
What are the 2 ways to inspect the cervix?Speculum & palpation
Which type of speculum do you use for a vaginal exam on a horse? How should you insert/remove it?Polansky’s speculum - when inserting, follow the natural anatomy by going UP & then OVER. DO NOT OPEN before it is inside of the vagina! When you are ready to remove it, CLOSE & TURN before pulling out
What does the cervix look like when in estrus? (Location, color, wetness, open or closed?)Ventral, pink, moist, & open.
What does the cervix look like when in diestrus? (Location, color, wetness, open or closed?)Mid-fornix, pale, dry, closed
Explain the cervix's position & stage of being open or not for... diestrus, early estrus, late estrus, & pregnancy.DIESTRUS: central & closed
LATE ESTRUS: soft & flaccid
PREGNANCY: tightly closed
Why do you want to do digital evaluation of the cervix? WHEN do you want to perform the check?Check is best done during diestrus. Want to check integrity & patency of cervix...ESP want to check cervix of post-partum mares or mares w/ Hx of infertility (barren)
Why do you want to digitally check the cervix during diestrus?Cervix should be tightly closed. Can assess it best this way.
Why do we care so much about the cervix in terms of pregnancy?Need a cervix which is able to close tightly in order to maintain pregnancy! (Which is why we want to check in diestrus)
When doing a microbiology repro should you prep for it? How do you maintain cleanliness?1st need to do perineal preparation (clean the perineal area very well) & you must use a STERILE rectal glove. In OP, endometrial swab kit, & inside out rectal glove. Then you want to do a DOUBLE GUARDED endometrial swab
Explain the process of the double-guarded endometrial swab(1) Swab 1 - for CS....send if evidence of inflammation on swab 2
(2) Swab 2 - make smear for cytological exam
2 types of endometrial swabs?Kalayjian swab & MOFA swab
How can you use a speculum to obtain a uterine swab? (pic)
During what time in the cycle are swabs/biopsies taken?During DIESTRUS
Why do you take swabs/biopsies during diestrus?This is when the sample will be the most representative. Bc biopsies best eval when there is no edema, & the cervix will be closed so uterine defenses will be low, therefore the uterine environment SHOULD be sterile, so any inflammation or Infxn seen will actually be significant.
What are the 3 TRUE venereal pathogens that you usually find w/ an endometrial swab?(1) Contagious Equine Metritis
(2) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(3) Klebsiella pneumoniae
Generally, when is an endometrial biopsy indicated?In every case of a barren mare!!
What are the 4 categories of the endometrial biopsy classification (Kenney's grading system)?(1) Category I → equal to 80% chance of carrying to term
(2) Category IIa - 50-80% chance
(3) Category IIb - 10-50% chance
(4) Category III - <10% chance
WHY do you want to endometrial Biopsy a barren mare?You can look for chronic histopathological changes, which will give an indication of uterine ability to carry a preg to term
What does a category I Kenney’s grade mean?Greater than or equal to 80% chance of carrying to term
What does a category IIa Kenney’s grade mean?50-80% chance of carrying to term
What does a category IIb Kenney’s grade mean?10-50% chance of carrying to term
What does a category III Kenney’s grade mean?<10% chance of carrying to term
Why might you wanna do a hysteroscopy?Look for intraluminal lesions, for lasering of endometrial cysts, to visualize endometrium oviductal openings- patency?
2 indications for endometrial lavage?(1) Cytology/microbiology
(2) Embryo recovery
How might serology appear w/ a granulosa cell tumor panel?Inhibin inc in 90% of cases, testosterone inc in 50-60% of cases. Progesterone low.

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