Therio- Mare repro exam

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:34

Thoroughbred weird stuff/ the repro exam

Question Answer
northern vs southern hemisphere birthdays for thoroughbreds?no matter what, northern hemisphere is Jan 1 and southern is aug 1-- want foals born as close as possible to these dates so they are grown as much as they can when they start to race (bc a foal born on Dec 31--> then it's Jan 1st, now it's a "year" old)
how old are the thoroughbreds when they start racing?(bc of fixed bdays) horses race as 2/3yr olds
how long is horse gestation, what is the implication for management of preg of thoroughbred mares?11mo!! so need to get her preg asap for the next yrs racing horses to be born
What repro method isnt allowed in TBs?NO AI ALLOWED
why is AI not allowed in TBs?to maintain worth of TB stallions- high demand for top stallions--> limited supply--> high stud fees
about how many mares can a TB stallion cover in a season?+/- 100
what is "reinforcement breeding"?so AI isnt allowed, but RB is...this is where they are allowed to scoop up any backflow of semen from mares tract, add extender, put in AI pipette and inseminate into uterus
what is foal heat? when does it occur?the first post-partum estrus, it is usu 6-9d post-foaling
what is "foal heat diarrhea" and how are they related?only related in time table-- about 6-9d post foaling is when the mare goes into foal heat, and around the same time the foal's gut is feeling the effects of bacterial colonization--> diarrhea
if a mare shows HEAT <10d post partum, what should you do and why?better to either short cycle (PGF2a) or delay onset of estrus (P4) so that uterus has a chance to involute before arrival of conceptus
how quickly do you wanna get a mare preg after she has foaled?w/in a mo of foaling down
4 indications for a repro exam of the mare?(1) routine exam during breeding mgmt (2) preg dx (3) problem mare workup (4)pre-purch exam
what are they looking at with a routine exam for breeding mgmt?monitor follicular growth, record ovulation, describe pathology
with the repro exam, what are the 4 main parts of it?(1) FOR THE LOVE OF GOD, ID THE HORSE. Can use passport or microchip. (2) repro hx (3) general clinical exam (4) specific genital exam
what things are you looking at during the general clinical exam part of the repro exam?go nose-to-tail so you don't forget anything, assess physical condition, physical exam to esp look at vital signs and musculoskeletal system
during the repro hx portion of the repro exam, you want to see records of what stuff, and what should you be on the lookout for?want to see records on mare's estrous cycles, estrous bhs, and teasing records--> these can point out probs such as chromosomal abnormalities or uterine infections. YOU WANT TO LOOK FOR PATTERNS IN REPRO RECORDS
what is a maiden mare? what are the repro implications of a maiden mare?one that has never foaled before, generally good chance of conception EXCEPT older maiden "career" mares (10+yrs)
what is a barren mare? breeding implications of a barren mare?hasn't conceived, may be a repro prob. *check mgmt, esp breeding mgmt
how are horses chosen for repro stuff usu?chosen for racing/jumping/etc abilities, NOT for their repro potential
what is so incredibly important to look at with your visual inspection of the perineum and vulva?CONFORMATION IS SUPER IMPORTANT (don't want wind suckers/ sunken vags)
4 types of lesions you should be looking for in the area of the perineum and vulva?(1) neoplastic (GREY HORSES AND MELANOMA) (2) inflammatory/infectious (3) surgical (4) Traumatic (old foaling injuries?)
poor conformation of the perineum/vagina usually happens in what two populations of horses?(1) mares in poor BCS (2) older broodmares
why do we not like a conformation with an elevated tail head/cranially sloped repro tract?if they have an elevated tail head, they may have a cr sloped repro tract...this allows urine to pool and exposes repro tract to air, urine and feces. --> chronic infxn of repro tract leading to poor fertility
what problem are we worried about with GREY mares and their vulva/perineum?NEOPLASIA-- specifically melanoma
describe the ideal conformation of the perineum and vulva?vulva positioned vertically with vulva lips forming a tight seal *vulva forms 1st seal protecting repro tract!!
how does an intersexed horses' vulva and perineum appear?inc ano-vaginal distance, enlarged clitoris
what are the 3 anatomical seals that protect the repro tract?(1) vulva (2) vestibulo-vaginal sphincter (3) cervix
what is going on with pneumovagina?if the vulva gapes or gentle separation results in aspiration of air= penumovagina
why don't we like penumovagina?allows air and feces access to the vagina, and exposes vag/cervix/uterus to infxn. (intrauterine infection esp bacterial endometritis is one of the major probs in broodmares).
what is a problem associated with conformation of broodmares, and how can it be fixed?intrauterine infection esp bacterial endometritis is one of the major probs in broodmares-- usually due to poor conformation and poor BCS...can be fixed with Caslick's operation
what is Caslick's index?length of vulva above ischial arch (cm) X angle of declination away from the vertical
which result of the caslicks index would indicate that the mare is most likely frequently suffering from penumo/urovagina? if the mare gets the score, what should you do?Greater than or equal to 100 means they frequently suffer from uro/pneumovagina, and they may need Caslick's procedure/operation post-breeding/AI to conceive and maintain pregnancy
pic to show side view of relation of length of vulva above ischial arch for caslicks index
how do you perform Caslick's procedure?(1) ring block with local anesthetics SQ in vulvar mucosa (2) suture with simple continuous technique starting dorsal and move ventral until about 2 fingers worth of space from ventral commissure, stop there (allows room for urination)
how can you check how normal the vestibulo-vaginal sphincter is?windsucker test
what is the windsucker test testing for and how is it performed?testing the patentcy of the vestibulo-vaginal gently pull the vulva lips apart--> air should be sucked in once seal is broken
for a rectal exam of repro tract, how is tone of tract affected by estrogen/progesterone?estrogen=dec tone. progesterone=inc tone
edema of uterus is scored on a scale of what to what and is expected when in the cycle?0-3, none in an/die but should be doughy in estrus
when (time units) can you dx preg with rectal palpation? U/S?rectal palpation is greater than or equal to 21d, ultrasound is 12d
how can you try to find the ovaries on rectal palpation?at 10 and 2 oclock just cr to pelvic brim
rectal palpation--> how big will the ovary feel when the horse is in anestrus?<4cm in any direction
what shape will the ovary feel like, and why?bean shaped, because of ovulation fossa
*where do follicle ovulate from on the ovary of a mare?ALL from the ovulation fossa
what can and cant you palpate on a mares ovary from a rectal palpation?bc medulla on outside, can only palpate folicles (and maybe a CH), NOT the CLs. It is often painful for the mare if you palpate a large follicle and she may kick or become restless
aside from outside of the body, how else can you U/S the mares repro tract?TRANSRECTAL U/S
what are you looking for when assessing the echotexture of the uterus with transrectal US?looking for signs of edema
If you see endometrial cysts on your transrectal US of the can they present? what must you do? what is a DDx for them?can be single or mult, and can range in size, and are often irreg in shape. need to map them out...DDX: pregnancy
what does uterine edema look like with transrectal US and when/why does it happen?happens during estrus due to inc estrogen. often looks like "wagon wheel" or "orange slices"
What does it look like when there is no uterine edema on transrectal US? When does this happen?no edema when in die/anestrus, so there is uniform echotexture (under influence of of prgesterone)
4 possible reasons to see free intrauterine fluid on transrectal U/S?(1) endometritis (2) post-breeding endometritis (3) pyometra (4) uterine gland pathology
why do we not want free intrauterine fluid?it is a hostile environment for the conceptus
what would an endometrial cyst look like on U/S?
If you are going to do a pervaginum procedure, how should you prepare for it?must clean the perineum extremely well
what are the two ways to inspect the cervix?speculum and palpation
which type of speculum do you use for a vaginal exam on a horse? how should you insert/remove it?polansky's speculum- when inserting, follow the natural anatomy by going UP and then OVER. DO NOT OPEN before it is inside of the vagina! When you are ready to remove it, CLOSE and TURN before pulling out
what does the cervix look like when in estrus? (location, color, wetness, open or closed?)ventral, pink, moist, and open.
what does the cervix look like when in diestrus? (location, color, wetness, open or closed?) mid-fornix, pale, dry, closed
explain the cervix's position and stage of being open or not for... diestrus, early estrus, late estrus, and pregnancy.DIESTRUS: central and closed. EARLY ESTRUS: opening. LATE ESTRUS: soft and flaccid. PREGNANCY: tightly closed
why do you want to do digital evaluation of the cervix? WHEN do you want to perform the check?Check is best done during diestrus. want to check integrity and patency of cervix...ESP want to check cervix of post-partum mares or mares with hx of infertility (barren)
Why do you want to digitally check the cervix during diestrus?cervix should be tightly closed. Can assess it best this way.
why do we care so much about the cervix in terms of pregnancy?Need a cervix which is able to close tightly in order to maintain pregnancy!!! (which is why we want to check in diestrus)
When doing a microbiology repro should you prep for it? How do you maintain cleanliness?First need to do perineal preparation (clean the perineal area very well) and you must use a STERILE rectal glove. In OP, endometrial swab kit, and inside out rectal glove. Then you want to do a DOUBLE GUARDED endometrial swab
explain the process of the double-guarded endomatrial swab(1) Swab 1- for C/S....send if evidence of inflammation on swab 2. (2) Swab 2- make smear for cytological exam
two types of endometrial swabs?kalayjian swab, and MOFA swab
how can you use a speculum to obtain a uterine swab? (pic)
during what time in the cycle are swabs/biopsies taken?during DIESTRUS
why do you take swabs/biopsies during diestrus?this is when the sample will be the most representative. Bc biopsies best eval when there is no edema, and the cervix will be closed so uterine defenses will be low, therefore the uterine environment SHOULD be sterile, so any inflammation or infection seen will actually be significant.
What are the three TRUE venereal pathogens which you usually find with a endometrial swab?(1) Contageous Equine Metritis (2) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3) Klebsiella pneumoniae
generally, when is a endometrial biopsy indicated?in every case of a barren mare!!
what are the 4 categories of the endometrial biopsy classification (Kenney's grading system)?(1) category I- >/equal to 80% chance of carrying to term (2) Category IIa- 50-80% chance (3) Category IIb- 10-50% chance (4) Category III- <10% chance
WHY do you want to endometrial bx a barren mare?you can look for chronic histopathological changes, which will give an indication of uterine ability to carry a preg to term
what does a category I kenney's grade mean?greater than or equal to 80% chance of carrying to term
what does a category IIa kenney's grade mean?50-80% chance of carrying to term
what does a category IIb kenney's grade mean?10-50% chance of carrying to term
what does a category III kenney's grade mean?<10% chanceof carrying to term
why might you wanna do a histeroscopy?look for intraluminal lesions, for lasering of endometrial cysts, to visualize endometrium oviductal openings- patency?
2 indications for endometrial lavage?(1) cytology/microbiology (2) embryo recovery
how might serology appear with a granulosa cell tumor panel?inhibin inc in 90% of cases, testosterone inc in 50-60% of cases. progesterone low.