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THERIO L6 Accidents of Gestation

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drhartz's version from 2017-09-14 22:05

Mummification

Question Answer
Mummificationdeath and desiccation of a fetus within the uterus without delivery through cervix
external signs of mummification (2)little external signs other than anestrus and failure to calve
diagnosis of mummificationpalpation and ultrasound
how is mummification tx?admin of prostaglandin (PGF2a)
when does fetal death associated with mummification occur?2nd trimester
what happens to the fetus during mummification?fetal fluids are resorbed/skeletal, leathery and firm, rat sized tightly pressed into uterine wall
are caruncles/placentomes affected with mummification?caruncles & placentomes disappear
how does mummification affect the cow?1. appears happy and healthy 2. anestrus 3. does not calve on schedule
causes of mummification?causes are not evident but could be 1. viral inf. with no contamination/inflammation 2. fetal death by anoxia
mummification by fetal anoxia could be from what 2 things?placental or umbilical cord
how is the cervix associated with mummification?for mummification to occur the cervix must be CLOSED
what bacteria cause mummification?bacteria do not cause mummification. no bacterial invasion of uterine contents
what could occur post administration of prostaglandin PGF2a in mummification?1. fetus is expelled within 2-3 days 2. dry mummy doesnt pass through vagina and manual extraction is needed or C section
when will a mummified fetus be expelled if PGF2a is administered?2-3 days
post tx of mummification how is reproduction affected?cows cycle and reproduce normally
economical implications of a cow that has a mummified fetus?loss of season/ calving/ lactation & cow may be culled as a result
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Maceration

Question Answer
what is fetal maceration?fetus is dissolved and decomposed by bacteria with the exception of some bones - foul smelling liquefied tissue remains in the uterus
how might fetal maceration occur? (3 steps)1. the fetus dies before or during an abortion 2. fails to be completely expelled 3. bacteria enter the uterus via the partially open cervix and multiply in the warm body temperature of the dead fetus.
how is the cervix associated with fetal maceration?the cervix is partially opened
how does maceration affect the cow?1. may not show signs of ill health or 2. depressed
how is the uterus affected from maceration?significant damage to the uterus may occur 1. *wall becomes thickened* 2. bone may embed uterine wall 2. bones may perforate the wall causing adhesions
is there vaginal discharge from fetus maceration?yes purulent vaginal discharge is grey/red and foul smelling
fetal maceration diagnosis?palpation and ultrasound
what is found during palpation of fetal maceration?1. uterus feels thick; possible bones felt 2. fluid fluctuation is minimal 3. purulent vaginal discharge
tx of fetal maceration? (3)1. tx is not always undertaken bc fertility is in question. 2. uterine contents expelled with prostaglandin PGF2a 3. bones embedded in uterine wall extracted surgically
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Hydrops

Question Answer
3 types of hydrops fluid accumulation?1. allantoic 2. amnionic cavity 3. fetus
which form of hydrops is a threat to the life of the cow & why?hydrops allantois bc the massive volume of fluid accumulation
differences in hydrops palpationhydrops amnii: placenta is normal & fetus is palpable hydrops allantois: placentomes and fetus not palpable
differences in hydrops presentation of cowamnii: abdomen is pear shaped & not tense allantois: abdomen is bilaterally round & tense
differences in hydrops pathology originallantois: placental, uterine, malnutrition/starvation - caruncle placentome size structure number, adventitious placental growth, chorioallantois structural changes... Hydrops Amnii: fetal -abnormal swallowing... Hydrops fetus: fetal - hydrocephalus, ascites, anasarca
difference in time of hydrops presentationallantois: rapidly within the last trimester... amnii: develops over several months
differences in hydrops post parturition cow reproductivityAllantois: uterine pathology & death .. Amnii: normal fertility and recovery
differences in hydrops birthing complications?allantois: abortion with complications and maternal death ... amnii: pregnancy goes to term cows recover but fetus is abnormal
most common form of hydrops?hydrops allantois 85 - 95%
when does hydrops allantois occur?rapid accumulation of fluid in the LAST TRIMESTER of gestation
shape of cow abdomen with hydrops allantois?bilaterally round and tense
what is the normal volume excess volume at term? what is the excess volume with hydrops allantois?normal :8-15 liters... hydrallantois: 100-250 liters
complications of added weight/pressure from hydrops allantois ?anxiety, recumbency, reduced feed intake, ketosis, prepubic tendon rupture, abdominal herniation
cause of hydrops allantois?placental, uterine, malnutrition/starvation
how is the placenta affected from hydrops allantois?caruncle placentome size number and structure, adventitious placental growth - placenta attaches to the uterus at places other than the caruncle, structural chorio-allantois structural changes
hydrops allantois diagnoisis?palpation and ultrasound
what is felt during hydrops allantois palpation?placentomes and fetus are NOT FELT bc of vast fluid volume
what does the ultrasound tell us in hydrops allantois?fetal # of twins and if there is a viable heart beat
how is the fetus affected from hydrops allantois?fetus tends to be normal
hyrops allantois tx?1. culling (abortion, maternal death, and uterine pathology are common) 2. trocarization with gradual drainage 3. induction of parturition if close to term
when draining an hydrops allantois cow be aware of what?rapid drainage will cause shock and fluid therapy must be provided after
if the uterus is tightly distended the diagnosis is allantois. but when is it not the diagnosis?if fetal parts can be identified it is not hydrops allantois
hydrops amnii volume of excess fluid?much less than in the amniotic space than with allantois
cause of hydrops amnii?fetus - abnormal fetal swallowing
presentation of cow with hydrops amnii?pear shaped abdomen that has developed over month not tense
hydrops amnii diagnosis?palpation & ultrasound
hydrops amnii what is felt during palpation?normal placenta & fetus is palpable
tx of hydrops amnii1. pregnancy can go to term 2. calving can be induced with PGF2a
examples of abnormal calves of hydrops amnii?bulldog calves - dexter, cattle muscle contractor monsters - red danish cattle, small calves with pituitary hypoplasia - guersey cattle, hydrocephalic calves - hereford cattle
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Uterine Torsion

Question Answer
what is uterine torsion?the uterus twists due to instability bc as the uterus contents grow the broad ligaments do not extend proportionately positioned beyond stable area of attachment - resting on the abdominal floor.
how can uterine torsion occur?1. cows getting up from the hind legs the uterus (suspended from the abdomen) allows the heavier pregnant horn to fall over the nonpregnant horn, stretching the broad ligament over the uterus twisting 90-180 degrees. 2. The broad ligament may be longer and wider in cows that have previously calved.
when does uterine torsion occur?advanced pregnancy or during early part of calving
uterine torsion presentation externally and internally in cowearly part of calving cow is in pain or anorexic. blood vessels may be constricted. rumen stasis, constipation, rapid pulse/respiration
dx of uterine torsionvaginal exam or palpation per retctum
how is uterine torsion dx w a vaginal exam?the vagina is twisted cranially. if the cervix is open the orientation of the calf is twisted. fetus may be dorso-pubic
how is uterine torsion dx w a rectum palpation?the broad ligament will be stretched over torsion of uterus - the pregnant typically falls over the nonpregnant horn = right horn pregnancies will create torsions to the left and left horn pregnancies will create torsions to the right (if observed from the rear)
how is uterine torsion tx?1. manual detorsion during parturition 2. rolling of the cow (rotate the cow underneath plank while keeping uterus stationary in abdomen) 3. c-section
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Vaginal Prolapse

Question Answer
when does vaginal prolapse occur?during pregnancy - late gestation before calving. not during calving or post partum period
when does uterine prolapse occur? post-partum period following calving
what is the difference of when vaginal prolapse occurs vs. uterine?vaginal prolapse happens during late gestation .. uterine prolapse happens after calving
how does vaginal prolapse present?the vaginal floor and sometimes the whole vagina and cervix is pushed through the vulva
what are 3 minor surgical approaches to tx vaginal prolapse?1. buhners method 2. prolapse pins 3. button technique/fixing the vaginal wall to the pelvic canal
what are predisposes a cow to vaginal prolapse?1. beef breeds not dairly like torsions 2. obesity 3. high roughage feeding filling the rumen 4. straining 5. hills/lying with heads pointed uphill
4 degrees of severity in vaginal prolapse1. intermittent 2. continuous prolapse of vaginal floor 3. cervix and entire vagina prolapsed 4. cervix and vagina prolapsed + lacerations, adhesions, necrosis, peritonitis
what is the buhner method? what must you remember to do?purse string of vulva with room to urinate - must be removed before calving!!
what is the button method?a disk inside the vagina is sutured through to the a disk on the outside/skin - may need to be removed before calving
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